Sub Logo

Dr K K Aggarwal

Women above 65 should take extra care of their health

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , | | Comments Off on Women above 65 should take extra care of their health

  • Women aged 65 and above should take low dose aspirin routinely to prevent heart attack and paralysis.
  • All women are urged to exercise a minimum of 30 minutes per day, but women who need to lose weight or maintain weight loss are now advised to engage in 60 to 90 minutes of moderate–intensity activity on most, or preferably all, days of the week.
  • A heart–healthy diet should be rich in fruits, whole grains and fiber foods with a limited intake of alcohol and sodium.
  • Saturated fat should be reduced to less than 7 percent of calories.
  • Women at very high risk for heart disease should try to lower their LDL (“bad”) cholesterol to less than 70 mg/dL.
  • Women aged 65 and over should consider taking low–dose aspirin on a routine basis, regardless of their risk.
  • Aspirin has been shown to prevent both heart attacks and stroke in this age group.
  • The upper dose of aspirin for high–risk women is 325 mg per day.
  • Hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators nor antioxidant supplements such as vitamins C and E should be used to prevent heart disease.
  • Folic acid should also not be used to prevent cardiovascular disease.
  • Women should eat oily fish or some other source of omega–3 fatty acids at least twice a week.
  • Women should not only quit smoking but should use counseling, nicotine replacement or other forms of smoking cessation therapy.

Wahans (Vehicles) In Mythology

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Spirituality - Science Behind Rituals | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on Wahans (Vehicles) In Mythology

In mythological era, the negative tendency of a man is symbolized with the animal nature. Gods in Indian mythology are symbolized by living a positive behavior. Every God has been given a vehicle or Wahan. Both God and the Wahan symbolized how to live a positive life and how to control the animal tendencies.

Following are a few examples:

  1. Lord Ganesha rides a Mouse. Mouse in mythology is symbolized with greed and Ganesha with one who removes obstacles. The spiritual meaning behind both is – one should learn to control greed to tackle obstacles in life.
  2. Lord Shiva riding Nandi (Bull is symbolized with uncontrolled sexual desires) and the duo signifies that for learning meditation, one needs to control sexual desires first.
  3. Saraswati (the goddesses of knowledge) sitting on Swan symbolizes that to acquire knowledge one must learn to control the power of discrimination or Vivek. Swan can drink milk and leave water from a mixture of milk and water.
  4. Indra (the one who has a complete control over the intellect) riding on the elephant Airavat symbolizes that intellect (Indra) for its development requires control over Masti and madness (elephant).
  5. Durga (the perfect woman) riding a lion symbolizes that to become a perfect woman, one must learn to control her agitation or aggression (lion).
  6. Lakshmi (wealth) riding an owl symbolizes that to earn righteously, one must learn to control Owl like properties within us, which is not to get befooled.
  7. Lord Vishnu (the doer) riding eagle or Garuda (Eagles are opportunistic predators which means they eat almost anything they can find) means controlling your desires to eat the unbalanced food.
  8. Krishna riding five horses means one need to control our five senses.
  9. Kartikeya riding on Peacock symbolizes that one should learn to control one’s pride (vanity) or ego.
  10. The vehicle of Goddess Kali is a black goat. Agni rides Mesha – a ram. Kubera, the God of wealth, also has a ram as his vehicle. A ram is an uncastrated adult male sheep. Goat also signifies uncontrolled sexual desires but lesser than the bull.
  11. Yamraj rides a buffalo, which is known for its rampant destruction. Lord Yama or Yamraja is referred to as the God of death, twin brother, lord of justice, Dharma Raja. One can do justice only if one has a control over anger and aggressive behavior.

In mythology, apart from Wahans, animals are also shown to be sacrificed, which means to kill that animal tendency within ourselves. For example, during exams, you need to kill your goat behavior, which is known to possess excessive sexual desires. You may need to control them throughout the year but during exams you need to kill them. In Kali Pooja, a buffalo is sacrificed, which again means that in extreme situations, you may need to kill your ego or anger.

Tomato reduces prostate cancer risk

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on Tomato reduces prostate cancer risk

Consumption of lycopene–containing foods, especially tomato and its products is prostate friendly. A prospective study of a cohort of over 50,000 men from the Health Professionals Follow–up Study in J Natl Cancer Inst 2014;106(2):djt430 suggests that dietary intake of lycopene is associated with a lower incidence of prostate cancer and a decreased risk of lethal prostate cancer. These effects may be mediated through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.

Why are most temples located in faraway places?

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Spirituality - Science Behind Rituals | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on Why are most temples located in faraway places?

 

In Vedic texts, it has been clearly mentioned that to acquire powers and inner happiness, rishi, munis were also required to do tapasya for months and years together. This tells us that spiritual well–being is acquired over an extended period of time as the process of detoxification is a long drawn process. Cars and other vehicles should not be allowed near temples as the basic motive is to have a pollution–free atmosphere and to give time and space for the mind to detoxify.Most temples represent God or the spirit or the deity located in the temple or mandir situated in an area at the outskirts of the city. A spiritual atmosphere is one that is devoid of pollution and which promotes rajasik or tamasik behavior. The silence of the spiritual atmosphere reduces the internal noise and helps us onward in our inner journey. The inner journey of being in touch with one’s consciousness requires detachment from worldly pleasures and the withdrawal of the five senses of the body 

To be in touch with one’s consciousness one needs to bypass the disturbed state of consciousness controlled by emotion, memories and desires, through mind, intellect and ego. This bypass usually requires a prolonged period of persistence and undertaking the inward journey devoid of external stimuli. The parikrama, which means “the path surrounding something”, incorporating many long walks helps to detoxify the mind and thus shifts the consciousness from a disturbed state to an undisturbed, calm state. 

A long walk not only offers physical benefits but one also gets the benefits of nature as one’s inner stimuli are exposed to the outer stimuli during the parikrama. The person is often required to walk bare foot on natural ground, inhale pure air and concentrate and listen to the sounds of the nature, birds and trees. This proximity to nature helps in the inward spiritual journey and shifts one from the sympathetic to parasympathetic mode described by lowering of blood pressure and pulse rate. The final happiness invariably comes from within us at the time of final darshan when a person invariably closes his eyes and experiences God within his heart. 

Most temples today are being constructed in residential colonies and provide a holy atmosphere to people right at their doorstep. However, they do not have the same spiritual significance and benefits as a temple located at the outskirts of a city. 

There is no way a person can go to a temple in the vicinity of his house and detoxify his mind as this can hardly be achieved in minutes unless you are a siddha yogi, and if you are one, you need not go to a temple as the temple is within you. 

In Vedic texts, it has been clearly mentioned that to acquire powers and inner happiness, rishi, munis were also required to do tapasya for months and years together. This tells us that spiritual well–being is acquired over an extended period of time as the process of detoxification is a long drawn process. Cars and other vehicles should not be allowed near temples as the basic motive is to have a pollution–free atmosphere and to give time and space for the mind to detoxify.

5 Ways to Use less Salt

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on 5 Ways to Use less Salt

  1. Use spices and other flavor enhancers such as spices, dried and fresh herbs, garlic and ginger, citrus, vinegars and wine. Flavors can be black pepper, cinnamon and turmeric to fresh basil, chili peppers, and lemon juice.
  2. Use the right healthy fats — from roasted nuts and avocados to olive, canola, soybean and other oils.
  3. Searing and sautéing foods in a pan builds flavor. Roasting brings out the natural sweetness of many vegetables and the taste of fish and chicken. If you do steam or microwave food, perk up these dishes with a finishing drizzle of flavorful oil and a squeeze of citrus.
  4. Get your whole grains from sources other than bread. White bread contains salt, not just for flavor but to ensure that the dough rises properly.
  5. Shop for raw ingredients with maximum natural flavor, thereby avoiding the need to add as much (if any) sodium. (Harvard)

Facts about Soul and the Spirit

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Spirituality - Science Behind Rituals | Tagged With: , | | Comments Off on Facts about Soul and the Spirit

  • Energy is the raw material of the universe.
  • Information is the organization of energy into reproducible patterns.
  • Consciousness is living information and energy (living energized information)
  • Consciousness is, therefore, intelligence.
  • Intelligence is information and energy that has self–referral or the ability to learn through experiences and the ability to reinterpret and influence one’s own information and energy states.
  • Consciousness is live, advanced, software–driven energized information.

Nearest example: Advanced computer software which can type, correct, interpret, edit and store spoken or read information.

Diagnosis of hypertension in childhood requires repeated BP measurements

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , , | | Comments Off on Diagnosis of hypertension in childhood requires repeated BP measurements

Hypertension should be confirmed based on three blood pressure measurements at separate clinical visits.

Normative BP percentiles are based upon data on gender, age, height, and blood pressure measurements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and other population–based studies.

In a study initial BP measurement was normal (below the 90th percentile), pre–hypertensive (systolic or diastolic BP between the 90th or 95th percentile) and hypertensive (systolic or diastolic BP =95th percentile) in 82, 13, and 5 percent of children.

At follow–up, subsequent hypertensive measurements were observed in only 4 percent of the 10,848 children who had initial hypertensive values. In the cohort, the overall prevalence of hypertension was 0.3 percent.

Source: Lo JC, Sinaiko A, Chandra M, et al. Prehypertension and hypertension in community–based pediatric practice. Pediatrics 2013;131:e415.

Spiritual Prescriptions: Satsang

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Spirituality - Science Behind Rituals | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on Spiritual Prescriptions: Satsang

Satsang is a common household word and is often held many residential colonies. Traditionally, Satsang means the regular meeting of a group of elderly or women of an area with a common intention of attaining inner happiness or peace through Bhajans or devotional songs for a particular God or Gods. In Satsang, people realize that it is the Self, communing with Self.

The Sanskrit word ‘Satsang’ literally means gathering together for guidance, mutual support or in search of truth. It may involve talking together, eating together, working together, listening together or praying together.

Most scriptures describe Sat and asat. They discriminate that this world is maya (asat) and God is Divine. Furthermore, they state that maya is not yours; Divine is yours.

Sang means to join, not just coming close, but to join. And how do you join? Only with love, which acts as glue. So Satsang is: Sat—Divine. Sang—loving association. In non–traditional Satsang, people verbally express themselves to others in an uninhibited way. Here, each participant talks free of judgment of others, and self. In this way, each person is able to see many viewpoints, which may serve to diminish the rigidity of their own.

Satsang is one way of acquiring spiritual well–being. Many scientific studies have shown that when mediation or chanting is done in groups it has more benefits than when done individually. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi once said that if 1% of the population meditates or chants together it will have a positive influence on the entire society.

Satsang also helps in creating a network of people with different unique talents. Satsangi groups are often considered in a very deep–rooted friendship.

Adi Shankaracharya in his book Bhaja Govindam also talks about satsang in combination with sewa and simran and says that together the three can make one acquire spiritual well-being. Nirankaris and Sikhs also give importance to satsang and in fact every true Sikh is supposed to participate in the Gurudwara on a regular basis.

Chanting of mantra or listening to discourses in a satsang helps to understand spirituality through gyan marga. Group chanting continued on a regular basis is one of the ways of meditation mentioned in the shastras. It shifts consciousness from sympathetic to the parasympathetic mode.

The medical educational programs of doctors of today can be called medical satsangs as whatever is discussed is for the welfare of the society.

Satsang also inculcates in us, one of the laws of Ganesha, the law of big ears, which teaches everyone to have the patience to listen to the others.

In satsang, nobody is small or big, everybody has a right to discuss or give his or her views. Over a period of time, most people who regularly attend satsang, start working from the level of their spirit and not the ego.

Work–related stress can kill

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on Work–related stress can kill

Job stress raises the risk of heart disease by disrupting the body’s internal systems.

The findings from a long–running study involving more than 10,000 British civil servants also suggest that stress–induced biological changes may play a more direct role than previously thought.

The researchers measured stress among the civil servants by asking questions about their job demands such as how much control they had at work, how often they took breaks, and how pressed for time they were during the day.

The team conducted seven surveys over a 12–year period and found chronically stressed workers – people determined to be under severe pressure in the first two of the surveys – had a 68 percent higher risk of developing heart disease. The link was strongest among people under 50.

Stressed workers also eat unhealthy food, smoke, drink and skip exercise – all behaviors linked to heart disease.

In the study, stressed workers also had lowered heart rate variability – a sign of a poorly–functioning weak heart and higher than normal levels of cortisol, a “stress” hormone that provides a burst of energy for a fight–or–flight response.

Too much cortisol circulating in the blood stream can damage blood vessels and the heart.

The lips of truth shall be recognized for ever, a lying tongue is but for a moment

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Spirituality - Science Behind Rituals | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on The lips of truth shall be recognized for ever, a lying tongue is but for a moment

This sutra from Bible has a very deep significance in day to day life. The truth is ever lasting and always ends up in internal happiness and self-realization and in the long run always gives you happiness and an all-win situation. On the contrary, a lying tongue will only give you a momentary pleasure but will lead to or create some difficulty later in life.

Spoken words cannot come back just as in the case of a released arrow from the bow. Once lost, one cannot get back their youth, virginity, or respect. Similarly, spoken bad words cannot be taken back and once spoken will create negative waves in the other persons (on whom they were spoken) mind which will persist as repressed thoughts or memory in the people’s mind for ever. Such bad memories will keep on coming back in the person’s mind causing damage to the personal relationships.

A spoken word is a karmic expression. For every karmic action there is an opposite and equal reaction. For every negative karmic expression one has to pay the debt either now or in future. The law of karma says that every debt has to be paid. It is always better to avoid negative language both in spoken words as well as in the mind. The yoga sutras of Patanjali describe thinking, speaking or doing anything wrong as having the same karmic significance. We should not only purify our self in actions and spoken words but also in the mind. If a person keeps negative thoughts in the mind sooner or later the same will be reflected to the outside world.

The momentary pleasure which one gets by “lying” has no spiritual significance as it only satisfies your ego sense or makes you attached to any of the five senses. The transient pleasure experienced by the body stimulates a chain of reactions, consisting of action, memory and desire leading to action again, which will only intensify the greed & attachments.

In the Mahabharata, Lord Krishna has given only two examples, which work as an exception to such a situation. Any truth which harms others may not be spoken and any lie which does not harm anyone but benefit a few may be spoken.

Truth is the opposite of doubt & it is always better to clear all the doubts from the mind as any repressed doubts can end up into causation of heart attack, paralysis and cancer.

Truth also means taking conscious-based decisions as the consciousness will never lie. While taking any decision, one should always ask oneself— Is it the truth? Is it necessary? Will it bring happiness to me and the people around?

Lord Krishna is also described as “Satchitanand”, which only indicates qualities like truthfulness, conscious based decisions and internal happiness. The practice of truthfulness has to be practical over a period of time and made a part and parcel of your daily life. To start with a person may have bad experiences but in the long run truthfulness will always win.

About thyroid gland

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on About thyroid gland

  • Low functioning thyroid is a new epidemic of the society affecting more than 3% of people. If thyroid function is low, it causes weight gain, loss of energy, cold intolerance and menstrual irregularities in women.
  • All people who are aged 50 and above should have their thyroid profile (TSH test) done to look for thyroid deficiency.
  • In younger people, or in cases of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy, weight gain, one should check for thyroid deficiency.
  • Iodized salt should be used to prevent thyroid deficiency.
  • Non–iodized salt is only used in two conditions: firstly in patient with thyroid inflammation and secondly, while doing Jalneti in naturopathy, a yoga–related nasal wash technique.
  • In pregnancy, even mild thyroid deficiency can affect the growth of fetus hence dose requirement of thyroid medicine is much higher in pregnancy than in non–pregnancy.
  • In the elderly, the dose of thyroid medicine to be started is always low as compared to one in the adults.
  • If thyroid deficiency is untreated, osteoporosis (thickening of bone) and/or atrial fibrillation (irregular and fast heart rate) may result. Osteoporosis can cause recurrent fractures and atrial fibrillation may cause brain paralysis.
  • In Allopathic medicine, thyroid deficiency is treated by synthetic T4 hormone replacement. In TFSP, thyroid extracts are available, which contain both T4 and T3 potential drugs.
  • In Ayurveda, thyroid stimulant drugs are available but they are effective only if some amount of thyroid gland is available.
  • As per Ayurveda, eating soya and drinking water from copper vessel is good for thyroid.

Why do we Offer Food to God in Every Pooja?

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Spirituality - Science Behind Rituals | Tagged With: , , , | | Comments Off on Why do we Offer Food to God in Every Pooja?

We follow a ritual of offering ‘bhog’ to the deity we worship. The ritual also involves sprinkling water all around the place where we sit down to eat food. Many people have advocated that the sprinkling of water is related to preventing ants and insects from approaching the food. But in spiritual language there is a deeper meaning to these rituals.

Bhagwad Gita and Yoga Shastras categorize food into three types corresponding to their properties termed as gunas. Depending upon satoguna, rajoguna and tamoguna, the food items are categorized as satwik, rajsik or tamsik.

Satwik foods provide calmness, purity and promote longevity, intelligence, strength, health, happiness and delight. Examples of satwik food items are fruits, vegetables, leaves, grains, cereals, milk, honey, etc. These items can be consumed as they are. One can also live on satwik food for life.

Rajsik food items possess attributes of negativity, passion and restlessness. Hot, spicy and salty food items with pungent, sour and salt taste promote rajas qualities.

Tamsik food has attributes of inducing sleep, ignorance, dullness and inertia. The examples of tamsik food are meat, onions, garlic, left–over food, etc.

Only satwik food is offered to God. Rajsik and tamsik food is never offered as Bhog. The only persons who were offered tamsik and rajsik food in Ramayana are Ahi Ravana and Kumbhkaran. Both of them were of an evil nature. Kumbhkaran signified tamas and Ahi Ravana, rajas or aggression. Tamsik and rajsik food can be converted into satwik by slow heating, sprouting or keeping them in water overnight. The examples are sprouted wheat and chana (chickpeas), etc.

A mixture of honey, milk, ghee, curd and sugar is called panchamrut and is a routine offering to the God. All the five components have satwik properties and their consumption promotes health.

In Ayurveda, there is a saying that any food item, which grows under the ground, is tamsik in nature and one, which comes from the top of the tree or plant like leaves, flower and fruits are satwik in nature. Satwik food is usually fresh, seasonal and locally grown.

Human beings are made up of body, mind and soul and soul is equated to consciousness or God. Whatever offered to external God if is offered to the internal God or consciousness leads to inner happiness. The ritual, therefore, of offering food to God before eating forces us to either eat only satwik food or to include a substantial portion of satwik food in our meals. It helps a person convert his meal into a pure satwik one or at least adding satwik items.

Sprinkling water around the plate is considered an act of purification.

Many people confuse bhog with chadhava or offerings to the deity. While bhog is shared with God, chadhava is the offering of your illness or negative thoughts to the God and you go back with prasada of inner happiness. Many people counter the above argument by saying that alcohol is offered to Bhairon, viewed as a demon God, which means alcohol, is good for health. I personally feel that alcohol is offered to Bhairon not as a bhog but as an offering which means that people who are addicted to alcohol go to Bhairon and give their share of alcohol to him so they can de–addict themselves.

Do Not Ignore Breakfast

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , | | Comments Off on Do Not Ignore Breakfast

Taking a good breakfast made of carbohydrates and lean protein, can help lessen cravings and hunger during the rest of the day, which can lead to significant weight loss.

A research by Dr. Daniela Jakubowicz, a clinical professor at Virginia Commonwealth University and an endocrinologist at the Hospital de Clinicas Caracas in Venezuela has shown that sedentary, obese women lost almost five times as much weight on the “big breakfast” diet as did women following a traditional, restrictive low–carbohydrate diet. While treating obese people we need to treat carb cravings and hunger.

On waking up in the morning, the body is primed to look for food. The metabolism is revived up, and levels of cortisol and adrenaline are at their highest. The brain needs energy right away, and if one doesn’t eat or eats too little, the brain needs to find another fuel source. To do this, it activates an emergency system that pulls energy from muscle, destroying muscle tissue in the process. Then when you eat later, the body and brain are still in high–alert mode, so the body saves energy from the food as fat.

Also the levels of the brain chemical serotonin are highest in the morning and the craving levels are at the lowest and you may not feel like eating. As the day wears on, serotonin levels dip, and you get cravings for chocolate or cookies, and such similar foods. If you eat these foods, your serotonin levels rise, and your body begins to associate good feelings with them, creating an addictive cycle.

The high protein, carbohydrate mix in breakfast gives the body the initial energy boost it needs in the morning. Throughout the rest of the day, the meals are made up of protein and complex carbohydrates, like vegetables. Because protein is digested slowly, you won’t feel hungry.

If you have to eat chocolate or candy, eat them in the morning because if you eat them when serotonin levels are high, they won’t taste as good, and the brain won’t feel the same serotonin boost. This will eventually help cut down on cravings.

Eating breakfast with high glycemic foods may be harmful. After eating cereal or a doughnut, the blood sugar and insulin levels spike. Once that blood sugar is used up, you’ll still have excess insulin circulating, which makes you hungry and makes you crave carbohydrates.

Why is Ganesha worshipped in every pooja?

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Spirituality - Science Behind Rituals | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on Why is Ganesha worshipped in every pooja?

Every Hindu ritual traditionally begins with a prayer to Lord Ganesh. The wedding ceremony too begins with a pooja of Lord Ganesha invoking him to bless the couple and to ensure that the ceremony goes off well.

Ganesha, the son of Shiva and Parvati, is the harmonious Aacharan or characteristic disposition of man. Remembered and ritually worshipped before starting a new venture, the entity of Ganesha has in store the facets of a complete man.

The elephant head of Ganesha represents wisdom, intelligence and a healthy mind capable of making sound decisions. Think before you speak, implies Ganesha’s head.

The big ears of this elephant deity signify the lending of a patient ear to the echo produced by others’ deeds and speech. It is said that half the dispute is resolved by patiently lending an ear to the words of the other. It also denotes that one must patiently listen to all sides before reaching a decision.

Ganesha’s extremely small mouth characteristically represents the need for a limited dialogue and the vanity of talking too much.

Overexpression through words results in unsought–for problems, which could have been avoided.

Ganesha’s small eyes highlight the need for a focused outlook in life. Such an outlook not only re-defines and foresees the right goals, but also relieves one from the stress–manifested episodes in life.

The long trunk identifies with the power of discrimination. Ganesha’s long nose has the strength to uproot a tree and the competency of picking up a pin from the ground. Such should be the approach of an individual who should be capable of perceiving the good and bad for one’s own self, and then have the strength to overcome these against all odds.

The tusks and the small teeth of Ganesha tell us to maintain a balance between loss (broken tooth) and gains (whole tooth) in the life. Man ought to maintain his mental state so that ups and downs do not deter him from his honest endeavors.

The ample stomach of Ganesha advocates the need for retaining information. Acquiring knowledge, utilizing it and retaining it for years to come, is the crux of ‘big–belly commandment’.

The Char–Bhuja Dhari Ganesha, further represents strength by virtue of his four hands in which the Lord entraps his attachments, desires and greed. Two arms of Ganesha, which hold a rope, represent control over the attachments. The laddoo or sweet in one symbolizes command over desires and earthly delusions.

The mouse sitting near the feet of Ganesha represents greed and gluttony upon which the Almighty rides, exhibiting control over evils.

Ganesha’s physical traits are an assembly of the characteristics most desired in an individual of substance.

Choose to become a father before you are 40

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , | | Comments Off on Choose to become a father before you are 40

Men should think about becoming fathers much before 40 years in order to minimize the effects of age on fertility and outcomes of pregnancy. The ideal age to become a father is between 25–35 years.

The age of sperm donors as per recommendations should be less than 40 years of age. Beyond this age, the sperm quality is reduced considerably and this may adversely affect fertility and pregnancy outcomes.

Researchers from the French National Institute for Medical Research has reported that miscarriages rates were higher in women whose partners were older than 40 years when compared to women whose partners are young men. This risk doubled when their partners were 45 years of age.

Older fathers are more likely to have a child with schizophrenia, heart defects, cleft lip, Down syndrome or a child being born autistic.

In women, pregnancy after 35 years of age is generally regarded as high risk with greater chances of birth defects and miscarriages. But, according to the researchers, the age of the male should also be taken into consideration by gynecologists.