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Dr K K Aggarwal

Poor hygiene habits may lead to typhoid

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium, Salmonella typhi and is transmitted through the ingestion of food or drink contaminated by the feces or urine of infected people.

Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions. Though the cases occur all through the year, the number is higher during the summer and rainy seasons.

Symptoms usually develop 1 to 3 weeks after exposure, and may be mild or severe. They include high fever, malaise, headache, constipation or diarrhea and enlarged spleen and liver. A healthy carrier state may follow acute illness.

Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics. However, resistance to common antibiotics is widespread. Healthy carriers should be excluded from handling food.

Good sanitation and hygiene are critical measures to prevent typhoid.

  • Typhoid does not affect animals and therefore transmission occurs only from human to human.
  • Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces or urine are able to come into contact with food or drinking water.
  • Careful food preparation and hand washing are crucial to prevent typhoid.
  • Typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal.
  • Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case–fatality rate to approximately 1%.
  • When untreated, typhoid fever may persist for three weeks to a month.
  • Resistance to common antibiotics is now common.
  • Typhoid that is resistant to common antibiotics is known as multidrug-resistant typhoid (MDR typhoid).
  • Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
  • Azithromycin is a new drug for drug–resistant typhoid.
  • Typhoid vaccine taken every three years is the best preventive approach.

Collective Consciousness

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Consciousness is an energized field of information with powers to do everything in the universe. Collective consciousness is the internet of the collective souls of many people in a group.

Collective consciousness is the strongest super power ever available in the universe. As per the Vedic texts, whatever is the intent of collective consciousness will become a reality. Scientifically, collective consciousness is based on the principle of critical mass. Vedic literature has shown it to be 1% of the defined population under study.

The origin of the critical mass comes from 100th monkey phenomenon. The story goes as under: long ago in Japan a monkey called Emo used to eat dirty apples picked up from the ground everyday. One day by accident the apple fell down in a river, the dirt got washed off and he ate the washed apple. Obviously it tasted delicious. He started washing the apples thereafter every day before eating. His fellow monkeys started following the same. The process of following went on. A time came when the 100th monkey washed the apple and ate it. A strange phenomenon was noticed. All monkeys in and around that state started washing the apple before eating. The no. 100 was the critical mass.

Once this mass is crossed the information will spread like a wild fire and the intent becomes a universal reality. Vedic literature has also shown if 1% of the public of any area meditates together, the crime rate of that area goes down. It also talks about the role of critical mass in prayers in achieving miracles.

Thus principle of critical mass is often used in designing and organizing an event. In a movie hall of 1000 people if 10 people clap sitting in different areas everybody will clap. The same is true for hooting at a particular scene. Most politicians use this principle when they organize election rallies. For a gathering of 10000 they need 100 and for a gathering of 1000 people they only need 10 supporters who are supposed to sit in different areas and shout or clap on given directions. The Mexican way of hooting or clapping in cricket grounds also follows the same principle. For a ground like Eden Gardens with a capacity of 75,000 people you only require 750 people to control the mood of the people. Most successful leaders used this technology to lead.

Chocolate, not tea, good for the heart

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Regular consumption of polyphenol–rich cocoa products like dark chocolate may be considered a part of dietary approaches to lower BP, provided there is no total gain in calorie intake.

Drug treatment is the basis of blood pressure control, and it should always be accompanied by lifestyle measures such as exercise and proper diet.

The recommendation is an occasional cup of cocoa but not chocolate milk, because it is high in sugar and fat.

According to a survey of medical literature by German researcher, Dr. Dirk Taubert from the University Hospital of Cologne, cocoa–rich products, and not tea, help lower high blood pressure. They covered 10 studies on cocoa that included 173 participants and five tea studies with 343 participants. The cocoa studies lasted an average of two weeks, with four out of five trials reporting a reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP.

The average reduction was 4 to 5 mm Hg in systolic pressure and 2 to 3 mm in diastolic pressure –– enough to reduce the risk of stroke by 20% and of coronary heart disease by 10%. No such reduction in blood pressure was noted in any of the tea trials, which lasted an average of four weeks. Tea and cocoa contain different kinds of polyphenols –– flavan–3–ols in tea, procyanids in cocoa.

Think Differently

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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There are three ways to manage stress. One is to think opposite, second is to think different and the third is to think positive.Thinking opposite was advocated by Patanjali, thinking differently by Adi Shankaracharya and thinking positive by Gautam Buddha.

Out of three approaches, the Indian Vedic philosophy focuses on thinking differently. Thinking positive and thinking opposite may not be feasible at the time of any adversity.Thinking differently has been emphasized in mythology at multiple places. The 10 heads of Ravana, five heads of Brahma, elephant head of Lord Ganesha, fish incarnation of Lord Vishnu and third eye of Lord Shiva remind us of the principle of thinking differently.We can see or analyze a person or a situation with the eyes of our physical body (physical eye) or eyes of the mind (thinking and analyzing) and eyes of the soul (conscious-based decision).Lord Buddha once said that a good action should be based on truth, should be necessary and bring happiness both for the person doing it and the society.The 3H principle advocated in the West is also based on the same principle, which means before any action think from your Head and from the multiple options available, choose from the Heart and then order the Hands to do the job.The first incarnation of Lord Vishnu, fish, indicates the capacity of swimming against the stream. The third eye of Lord Shiva symbolizes thinking from the mind and choosing the right answer from the heart. The 10 heads of Ravana and five heads of Brahma also denote thinking to get multiple options.The example of thinking differently comes from the dialogue between Urvashi and Arjuna. Once Urvashi in a mind full of Kama went to Arjuna and said “If you are not going give me a son like you today, I am going to curse you”.Arjuna was in a dilemma but he thought differently and said – “Why do you want to wait for 25 years to get a son like me from today I am your son, Mother.”

(Disclaimer: The views expressed in this write up are my own).

Fatty Liver

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  • Fatty liver isalso called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults.
  • It is an ongoing silent epidemic in India.
  • NAFLD refers to the presence of hepatic steatosis when there are no other causes for secondary hepatic fat accumulation such as heavy alcohol consumption.
  • NAFLD may progress to cirrhosis and is likely an important cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis
  • NAFLD is subdivided into nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
  • In NAFL, hepatic steatosis is present without evidence of inflammation, whereas in NASH, hepatic steatosis is associated with hepatic inflammation that histologically is indistinguishable from alcoholic steatohepatitis
  • Risk factors for cirrhosis are, older age, diabetes, SGOT:SGPT >2 times,  BMI >28, higher visceral adiposity index, which takes into account waist circumference, BMI, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, less coffee consumption and heavy alcohol intake.
  • As little as two drinks per day in those who are overweight (and one drink per day in those who are obese) are associated with hepatic injury.
  • Liver cancer is associated with cirrhosis due to NAFLD.
  • Heart disease is the most common cause of death among patients with NAFLD.
  • Weight loss for patients who are overweight or obese is recommended.
  • Goal for many patients is to lose 0.5 to 1 kg/week (1 to 2 lb/week).
  • Vaccination for Hepatitis A and B, pneumococcal vaccination and standard immunizations (e.g., influenza, diphtheria, tetanus boosters) are recommended for the population in general.
  • Risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be managed.
  • Vitamin E at a dose of 400 IU/day may be suggested for those patients with advanced fibrosis on biopsy who do not have diabetes or coronary artery disease.
  • Avoid all alcohol consumption. Heavy alcohol use is associated with disease progression.
  • Thiazolidinediones can improve histologic parameters in patients with NASH; metformin does not.
  • UDCA has anti-inflammatory effects in the liver
  • Atorvastatin has protective effect on SGOT, SGPT levels in patients with NAFLD.
  • Pentoxifylline inhibits production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and may be effective in NASH.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may benefit NAFLD or NASH.
  • If serum ferritin is >1.5 times the upper limit of normal, then this indicates progressive liver disease:
  • If SGOT: SGPT > twice the upper limit of normal, then refer

The vast power of the Spirit

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Om Poornamadah Om Poornamadah

Poornamidam Poornaat

Poornamudachyate Poornasya

Poornamaadaaya Poornameva Avasihyate”

The whole is whole; if you take away the whole away from the whole the whole will still remain.’ (That is infinite, this is infinite, from the infinite, the infinite has come. Having taken the infinite out of the infinite, the infinite alone remains). (In Vedanta, “That” represents superconsciousness, God or the Brahman and “This” the visible universe)Atman, which makes up our body, is 99.99 per cent space or void and if we look at the rest, it is also nothing but space or void. This void or ‘akasha’ is what is called Brahman, God or consciousness and is a web of energized information.

This web of information of inner space called inner consciousness is the Atman or the Soul. This is connected with the outer space in the universe having a similar web of energized information called the Spirit or Brahmand.The Spirit has been given many names by different religions: Allah, Buddha, Brahman, Christ or Wahe Guru.

They all signify the same. This spirit, the energized field of information, is a powerful expression of live energy which can move faster than the speed of light. Soul is nothing but an individualized expression of the spirit.This energy containing information in the spirit cannot be seen, felt, touched, tasted or smelt. It is beyond the perception of the five senses. One cannot destroy it with a weapon, fire, water or air.

This consciousness is embedded in the space of each and every cell of the body. It is like sugar added to the milk. Once added, you cannot find it as it gets embedded with each and every drop of the milk.Soul originates from the spirit. Each soul differs from the other by way of the subtle layer of consciousness called the ‘Sukshma Sharir’, which is controlled by the triad of actions, memories and desires.Spirit is like the light, which is always positive and removes darkness. The basic nature of consciousness is “truth and bliss”.

The soul and the spirit are devoid of hatred, anger or jealousy and are full of unconditional love. They are nothing but a treasury of information about everything. This infinite information is capable of doing anything, including miracles.It is like the flame of a candle, which can light an infinite number of candles, while still retaining its illumination to the same degree.Deepak Chopra once said that the soul is like the voice of Lata Mangeshkar coming through a radio, and if you break the radio, you won’t find Lata Mangeshkar in it. Similarly, if you cut the body into pieces, you cannot find the physical presence of the spirit.

Spirit is omnipresent and any amount of Spirit taken out from it will not make any difference to it.In religious terms, the infinite or the vastness is equated and described by the blue color, and that is one reason why most gods are represented in blue color, or are shown in the background of blue sky. This only represents the vastness and infinite character of the consciousness.A guru explained the Spirit to his disciples by the following equation: 1 × 1 = 1, 1/1=1 or, in other words everything is One.

One can also explain it by the equation that infinity when added, subtracted, multiplied or divided by infinity will result only in infinity.This infinite potential in our minds is present in between the thoughts and can be experienced by enabling oneself to go in between the thoughts by a process called meditation. One can experience the silent gap between the thoughts either with the use of primordial sound mantra as a vehicle or by way of yoga.

People who have learnt meditation and have achieved the ability to go into the silent gaps can accomplish everything in their life using the principles of intention and attention. After any intention is introduced in the silent gap, a new reality can be created.“That which is born of the flash is a flash; that which is born of the spirit is spirit” (John)

Sangat and smoking

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Adi Shankaracharya described Sangat as the main force for living a spiritual life.

Sangat is the company of people you live with. Living in the company of good people makes one good and the reverse is also true.

The same is now being proved in the allopathic context. A new research published in the New England Journal of Medicine has shown that when one person quits smoking, than others are likely to follow. One person quitting can cause a ripple effect, making others more likely to kick the habit.

  1. If your spouse stops smoking, you’re 67 percent less likely to continue smoking.
  2. If your friend kicks the habit, it’s about 36 percent less likely that you’ll be smoking.
  3. When a sibling gives up cigarettes, your risk of smoking decreases by 25 percent.
  4. Your risk of smoking drops by 34 percent if a co–worker in a small office quits smoking. It’s sort of like watching dominoes. If one falls, it very quickly causes others to fall.

We should treat people in groups, rather than as individuals. Friends and family need to be involved. If you want to quit, try to get close friends and family to quit as well.

Quitting smoking may have the side benefit of improving social well–being, just as it improves physical health.

Signs of Spiritual Awakening

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  • More experiences of telepathy
  • More experiences of reverse telepathy
  • More spontaneous fulfillment of desires
  • Increased tendency to let things happen rather than make them happen. Work done with the least effort.
  • Change in the nature, more smiling, laughter and thankful nature.
  • Feelings of being connected with others and nature.
  • Frequent overwhelming episodes of appreciation.
  • Tendency to think and act spontaneously rather than from fears based on past experience.
  • Ability to enjoy each moment.
  • Living in the present.
  • Loss of worry.
  • A loss of interest in conflict.
  • A loss of interest in interpreting the actions of others.
  • A loss of interest in judging others and self.
  • Gaining the ability to love without expecting anything in return.
  • Quality of converting an adversity into opportunity.
  • Dislike for drugs, smoke and excess of alcohol.
  • Happiness in doing random acts of kindness.
  • Looking for good in every one.

Tips for preventing back and spine problems

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  • Get moving. Physical activity helps in keeping the joints fluid. A person who is not physically active is more susceptible to back problems.
  • Eat healthy. If you maintain good eating habits, you not only will maintain a healthy weight, but you also will not put unnecessary stress on your body.
  • Sleep sideways. The best position for sleeping is on your side. If you are sleeping on your stomach, put a pillow under your lower abdomen to help take stress off your back.
  • Correct your posture and avoid stress. The importance of good posture cannot be overlooked in preventing back problems. Additionally, stress can tense your muscles, and constant tension of this kind can cause back pain. Thus, it is important to find ways to reduce stress.

Do your duty with discipline and devotion

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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“Vasudaiva kutumbakam” (the whole world is one family) and “Ekam Sat Viprah Bahudavanti” (truth is one but the wise call it by various names) are two basic statements which comes from the ancient Rig Veda and form the fundamentals of Vedic philosophy.

One should do one’s duty with devotion and discipline. This principle can be remembered as the principle of three Ds. The Triad Represents Rama, Lakshmana and Hanumana.

In daily routine ‘one should remember the purpose for which one is born, which to fulfill Dharma (duty), Artha (wealth), Kama (desire) and Moksha (liberation). To achieve them, one needs to follow the four Fs: (i) Follow the teacher (ii) Face the negative devils of the mind (iii) Fight till the end (iv) Finish at the goal.

The essence of Bhagwad Gita can be summarized in one shloka (Chapter 2.48) where Krishna says to Arjuna “yogastha kuru karmani”, which means ‘concentrate on actions’ (do all actions while remaining in yoga). He further says that one should take success and failure in the same stride. (yogastha: = steadfast in yoga, kuru = perform, karmani = duties or action).

To acquire spiritual health, follow three Ss which are: (i) Satsang (company of good people) (ii) Sadhna (hard work) and (iii) Sanskar (good deeds).

Adi Shankaracharya in Bhaj Govindam describes them as Satnaam or Simran (bhakti, or reciting the name of their God), Satsang (company of good people) and Seva (good karmas). Before doing any work, follow the principles of three Hs: (i) Listen with the Head (ii) Follow the Heart to choose one of the choices and (iii) Order the Hands to take an action.

The ABCs of a good professional are Availability, Behavior and Competence. Competence comes last; the first is the availability of the professional.

An action should be based on Truth; it should be coming from consciousness and should end in internal bliss. Various Vedic literatures have termed this triad by different names like satha, chitha, ananda, and satyam, shivam sundaram.

Cough Hygiene

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  • When you cough or sneeze, you tend to expel out respiratory waste which can be droplets (larger than 5 micron) or airborne droplets less than 5 micron; both have a different implications.
  • Droplets remain suspended in the air only for a limited period. A distance of less than 3 feet is usually required for human to human transmission of droplet-borne respiratory organisms. In flu, this distance can be up to 6 feet. The sources of droplet infections are patients with meningitis, influenza, rubella etc.
  • No precaution needs to be taken by a person who is 6–10 feet away from the patient but if a person is sitting or working even 3–6 feet distance the non-coughing person should wear simple mask.
  • In contrast, airborne droplet nuclei carrying respiratory secretion smaller than 5 micron remain suspended in the air for an extended period and can cause infections to people who are standing even more than 10 feet away. The examples of airborne droplet nuclei infections are TB, measles, chickenpox and SARS.
  • These patients should be placed in an isolation room; all healthcare personnel looking after these patients must use a safe N95 mask.
  • Usually, in houses with their windows open, there is a constant exchange of air which prevents spread of infections but in AC setups with no air exchange, the infections can spread from one person to another.
  • When sitting in an air-conditioned atmosphere, the AC setting should be such that the same air is not circulated and fresh air is allowed to exchange. Split ACs, therefore, are more dangerous than the window ACs.
  • In an office with split AC, if one of many employees is suffering from any of the droplet nuclei, disease can transmit infection to others. Therefore, patients with confirmed TV, measles, chickenpox and SARS should not be allowed to work in areas with split AC.

The spiritual prescription “I am sorry”

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Two hardest words for a doctor to say: “I’m sorry.”

Most defense lawyers counsels doctors not to apologize to patients. Their view is that if you say you’re sorry for something, you are implicitly taking some degree of responsibility for whatever has happened, in other words, you are pleading guilty. The complainant’s lawyers may use a doctor’s apology to the maximum extent possible to show the doctor knew what they did was wrong. The usual approach is deny and defend.

But

  1. Apologizing after a medical error is the humane thing to do.
  2. Patients often sue simply because it’s the only way to find out what went wrong.
  3. Erecting a wall of silence is “enough to make someone very angry. And it’s awfully easy for an angry person to find a lawyer who will listen to them. At that point, it’s too late for sorry.
  4. Over 35 states in the USA have passed laws prohibiting doctors’ apologies from being used against them in court. (apology laws)
  5. By promptly disclosing medical errors and offering earnest apologies and fair compensation one can hope to restore integrity to dealings with patients, make it easier to learn from mistakes and dilute anger that often fuels lawsuits.

Apology the spiritual answer

  • The word ‘sorry’ is synonymous with apology.
  • To err is human, to admit one’s error is superhuman.
  • Sorry should be heart-felt and not ego-felt. You should not only say sorry but you should appear as being genuinely sorry.
  • Tremendous courage is require to face the victim of our wrong doing and apologise.
  • It is generally seen that those who are in harmony with their life and consequently with themselves, find it easier to say ‘I’m sorry’. They are the positive, conscientious ones who are at peace only after making amends for their misdeeds.
  • The word ‘sorry’ in itself is imbued with so much potential and power. Within a fraction of a second, grave mistakes are diluted, tepid and estranged relations are brought alive, animosity and rancour are dissolved, misunderstandings resolved and tense situations ease out resulting in harmony and rapprochement.
  • To forgive and forget is a common spiritual saying.
  • Remember we all make mistakes and seek forgiveness form GOD every day.

Why do we place our hands over the flame?

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Flame is the “flame” of true knowledge. At the end of any aarti, we place our hands over the flame and then touch our eyes and the top of the head. It means – “May the light that illuminated the Lord light up my vision; May my vision be divine and my thoughts noble and beautiful.”

The metaphysical implication of aarti extends further. The sun, moon, stars, lightning and fire are the natural sources of light. The Lord is the source of these wondrous phenomena of the universe. It is due to Him alone that everything exists.

As we light up the Lord with the flame of the aarti, we turn our attention to the very source of all light, which symbolizes knowledge and life. Also, the Sun is the presiding deity of the intellect, the moon, that of the mind, and fire, that of speech. The Lord is the supreme consciousness that illuminates all of them. Without Him, the intellect cannot think, the mind cannot feel and the tongue cannot speak. The Lord is beyond the mind, intellect and speech.

How can these finite entities illuminate the Lord? Therefore, as we perform the aarti we chant:

Na tatra suryo bhaati na chandra taarakam, Nemaa vidyuto bhaanti kutoyamagnib

Tameva bhaantam anubhaati sarvam, Tasya bhasa sarvam idam vibhaati

“He is there where the sun does not shine, nor the moon, stars and lightning. Then what to talk of this small flame (in my hand), Everything (in the universe) shines only after the Lord, and by His light alone are we all illumined”

In our spiritual journey, even as we serve the guru and society, we should willingly sacrifice ourselves and all we have, to spread the “perfume” of love to all.

We often wait a long while to see the illuminated Lord but when the aarti is actually performed, our eyes close automatically as if to look within. This is to signify that each of us is a temple of the Lord.

Tips for a safe Holi

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  • Green and bluish green chemicals contain malachite green, which can be toxic to the eyes. Auramine, methyl violet, rhodamine and orange II are all phototoxic colors and can damage the skin.
  • Mica in Holi colors can damage the skin.
  • Instead of chemical dyes, one should use floral dyes. Flowers like Marigold, China rose, Butterfly Pea, Flame of the Forest etc. are used for the extraction of colors.
  • ‘Bhang’ or cannabis can precipitate acute abnormal mental behavior and psychosis. In the susceptible individuals, it can increase the heart rate and blood pressure. Pre treatment with a beta blocker can take away the bad effects of bhang.
  • Alcohol can impair judgment and make prone to accidents.
  • Balloons can cause blunt injuries to the eyes and precipitate head injuries.
  • Beware of date rape drugs. Do not play Holi with strangers.
  • Do not throw color at sensitive parts of the body, such as eyes. If color enters the eye, immediately wash it with a lot of water. If irritation persists, medical aid should be sought immediately.

What are the Ethics of Vidur Niti?

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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The best description of the causes and treatment of insomnia comes from Vidura Niti, a dialogue between Vidura and Dhritarashtra.

In the text, King Dhritarashtra said: “O Vidura, Sanjaya has come back. He has gone away after rebuking me. Tomorrow he will deliver, in the midst of the court, Ajatashatru’s message. I have not been able today to ascertain what the message is of the Kuru hero. Therefore, my body is burning, and that has produced sleeplessness. Tell us what may be good for a person that is sleepless and burning.”

“My body is burning, and that has produced sleeplessness” is a typical description of anxiety and related sleeplessness, true even today.

Vidura said: “Sleeplessness overtakes thief, a lustful person, him that has lost all his wealth, him that has failed to achieve success and him also that is weak and has been attacked by a strong person”.

He therefore described five basic reasons for insomnia and even in today’s science they are true. No new cause has been added in this list of stress-induced insomnia. These situations are:

  1. A thief2. A lustful person3. A person who has lost all his wealth4. A person who has failed to achieve success5. A person who is weak and has been attacked by a strong person.

Ayurveda describes sleep problems as an aggravation of Vata and Pitta doshas. The number one cause of the same is mental tension, suppressed feelings and acute bitterness. The above five situations again hold true to this effect.

The other causes of insomnia in Allopathy are constipation, dyspepsia, excessive intake of tea, coffee & alcohol and environmental factors such as excessive cold, heat. In most situations, they are the effect and not the cause of insomnia.

The treatment of insomnia involves either suppressing the emotions with drugs or eradication of stress with proper counseling.

Bhagavad Gita, Chanakya Niti and Vidur Niti are high level counseling books of ancient era and their texts and sutras are even true today.

Bhagavad Gita was the counseling done by Krishna when Arjuna went in an acute anxiety state and could not decide about going to war with this near ones. He said: “My legs are trembling, my bows are leaving me, by body is shaking. What should I do”? The principles of Gita today are incorporated as the principles of any counseling.

Chanakya gave principles of how to manage conflicts and win over others. One of his main teachings was that money earned by unfair means can only last for eight years.

Another answer to insomnia is learning meditation as described in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras or Yoga Vashistha. It is based on the principle of concentrating on the present, which shifts the inner environment from sympathetic to para sympathetic mode. About 20 min of meditation in the morning and evening provides the same biochemical benefit as acquired from 7 hours of deep sleep.

Here are some other sutras of Vidura Niti:

  • Do not inhabit a country where you are not respected, cannot earn your livelihood, have no friends, or cannot acquire knowledge. (1.8)
  • Do not reveal what you have thought upon doing, but by wise counsel keep it secret, being determined to carry it into execution. (2.7)
  • Consider again and again the following: the right time, the right friends, the right place, the right means of income, the right ways of spending, and from whom you derive your power. (4.18)
  • A wise man should not reveal his loss of wealth, the vexation of his mind, the misconduct of his own wife, base words spoken by others, and disgrace that has befallen him. (7.1)