Osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiencies are the two epidemic of the.

Drinking less milk, quitting the sunlight exposure and omitting the traditional aerobic indoor games is one reason for the new epidemic. Younger professionals are also staying indoors with practically no sunlight exposure. This is especially true for the medical residents also.

Here are a few tips for preventing osteoporosis and strengthening the bones.

1.One should stop smoking as it increases bone loss.

2.Eat a calcium-rich diet – The aim should be to get 1,500 milligrams of calcium a day in postmenopausal woman or a man over age 65. Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products, tofu and other soy products; orange juice fortified with calcium, canned salmon with the bones, and cooked spinach. The alternative is to take calcium supplements.

3. Get enough vitamin D – Vitamin D levels are influenced by how much sunlight one gets.  Levels tend to decrease in older adults, especially in winter and in people who are unable to leave their home. One should consider taking a supplement to make sure one gets the recommended daily amount.

4. Get exposure to sunlight of at least 20 minutes per day. At least the exposure should be of 20 minutes every day for a month in a year.

5. Get enough protein in diet: An adequate intake of protein in diet, combined with an adequate intake of Ca helps increase bone density. One should aim for about 12% of calories to come from proteins such as legumes, poultry, seafood, meat, dairy products, nuts and seeds. However, too much protein with too little Ca can be harmful.

6. Weight-bearing exercise – These are activities such as walking jogging and stair climbing that one should do on the feet, with your bones supporting your weight. They work directly on the bones of the legs, hips and lower spine to slow mineral loss.

7. Weight-lifting exercises–These exercises, also called resistance training or strength training. They strengthen muscles and bones in the arms, chest and upper spine. They can work directly on the bones to slow minerals loss.

8.   Get adequate vitamin K – This vitamin may be helpful in enhancing bone strength. Green leafy vegetables are the best sources of vitamin K. If one is taking a blood thinner he or she should check with the doctor.

9.       Avoid excessive alcohol – Women should limit alcohol consumption to less than one ounce a day and men should limit it to less than two ounces.

10.    Limit cola drinks – People who have high cola intake often have lower bone density.