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Dr K K Aggarwal

Some tips from HCFI to prevent malaria

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  1. Malaria mosquitoes grow in fresh water collected in the house. It is therefore important to not let water stagnate in your house and the surrounding areas. Mosquito cycle takes 7-12 days to complete. So, if any utensil or container that stores water is scrubbed cleaned once in a week, there are no chances of mosquito breeding.
  2. Mosquitoes can lay eggs in money plant pots or in water tanks on the terrace if they are not properly covered. If the water pots for birds kept on terraces are not cleaned every week, then mosquitoes can lay eggs in them.
  3. Using mosquito nets/repellents in the night may not prevent malaria because these mosquitoes bite during the day time.
  4. Malaria mosquitoes do not make a sound. Therefore, mosquitoes that do not produce a sound do not cause diseases.
  5. Wearing full sleeves shirt and trousers can prevent mosquito bites. Mosquito repellent can be helpful during the day.

Fever in children

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  • Do not ignore fever in children.
  • Fever with cough and cold means viral sore throat.
  • Fever with chills and rigor may be due to malaria.
  • Fever with severe headache and pain behind the eyes may be dengue.
  • If a child has fever with urinary symptoms, the child needs further investigations.
  • Do not ignore fever with jaundice.
  • Do not give aspirin to children for fever.
  • Immediately lower the temperature if the fever is more than 104°F.
  • If fever is associated with altered behavior, then immediately contact the doctor.
  • Tepid water sponging is better than sponging with cold and ice water.
  • In heat stroke, cold water sponging can lower the temperature if anti-fever medication is not working.
  • Do not ignore if body temperature is low.
  • If body temperature is less than 95°F, immediately warm the child using blankets and other measures.
  • Paracetamol is the safest medicine for children in fever.

Tips from HCFI for malaria prevention

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  1. Malaria mosquitoes grow in fresh water collected in the house. It is therefore important to not let water stagnate in your house and the surrounding areas. Mosquito cycle takes 7-12 days to complete. So, if any utensil or container that stores water is cleaned properly once in a week, there are no chances of mosquito breeding.
  2. Mosquitoes can lay eggs in money plant pots or in water tanks on the terrace if they are not properly covered. If the water pots for birds kept on terraces are not cleaned every week, then mosquitoes can lay eggs in them.
  3. Using mosquito nets/repellents in the night may not prevent malaria because these mosquitoes bite during the day time.
  4. Malaria mosquitoes do not make a sound. Therefore, mosquitoes that do not produce a sound do not cause diseases.
  5. Wearing full sleeves shirt and trousers can prevent mosquito bites. Mosquito repellent can be helpful during the day.

Tips to differentiate between different types of fever

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Different fevers can be differentiated clinically. Following are few tips:

  1. If a patient comes with fever with chills and rigors, think of Malaria in north and filaria in Vidarbha region in India.
  2. In malaria, chills occur in the afternoon; in filaria, the chills occur in the evening.
  3. Fever with joint pains on extension is often due to Chikungunya (flexion improves the pain)
  4. Think of dengue if there is fever with itching, rash and periorbital pain.
  5. In presence of fever with single chills think of pneumonia.
  6. Fever with sore throat, no cough, no nasal discharge: Think of streptococcal sore throat, especially in the children.
  7. Fever with red angry–looking throat: Think of streptococcal sore throat
  8. Fever with red epiglottis: Think of Hemophilus infection
  9. Fever with cough and or nasal discharge: Think of common flu
  10. Fever with cough, nasal discharge, nausea and vomiting: Think of H1N1 flu
  11. Fever with toxic look, persistent fever: Look for typhoid
  12. Fever with no or low rise in pulse: Look for typhoid
  13. Fever with urinary symptoms (burning, frequency): Rule out urinary infection.
  14. Fever with high TLC (white cell count) and liver pain: Rule out liver abscess
  15. Fever with watery diarrhea, with no blood or mucous: Rule out acute gastroenteritis
  16. After the fever is over, jaundice appears: This is viral hepatitis
  17. After the fever subsides, one feels very weak: Rule our dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Monsoon fever can be deceptive

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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In the current season any episode of fever should not be taken lightly as many diseases can cause fever, the commonest being viral, malaria, dengue or Chikungunya. However, fever can also be due to viral jaundice or typhoid. Here are a few tips: • Unless you suspect typhoid, no antibiotics are required. • Viral fever is associated with cough, redness of the eyes or nasal discharge. • Dengue will have fever with rash and pain in eye movement. • Chikungunya is a triad of fever, rash and joint pain. Typically the joint pain will increase on compression of the joint. • Typically, the fever in malaria comes with chills and rigors and will have normal phase in between two episodes of fever. • Fever in jaundice disappears once the jaundice appears. • Typhoid fever is often continuous with relatively low pulse rate and with toxic feeling. Precautions • No antibiotics are required unless there is a feeling of toxemia. • Antibiotics in cases of sore throat are only required if associated with pain in the throat while swallowing food or red angry–looking tonsils. • Except for paracetamol or nimesulide, other anti-fever medicines should not be used indiscriminately as they can reduce platelet count. • Most diseases are self–limiting and take 4 to 7 days to resolve. • The basic precaution involves proper hydration, especially on the days when fever is subsiding. Warning signals Any fever with associated comorbid conditions should not be ignored; a doctor should be consulted.

Malaria Revisited

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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• Malaria is transmitted by the bite of a female anopheles mosquito. • The mosquito bite occurs mainly between dusk and dawn. • Malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, or via sharing of contaminated needles. • Bed nets are good against malaria as the major malarial vectors bite during the night. • The behavior of the mosquitoes may differ. Some may prefer to rest indoors and feed indoors in the night. Some may prefer to rest and feed outdoors earlier in the day. • Preventive therapy of malaria can be instituted during pregnancy in high risk areas. • The malarial mosquito feeds every third day compared to the dengue mosquito, which feeds three times in a day. • Unlike the malarial mosquito, the dengue mosquito bites during the day. • Malarial fever presents with chills, especially during afternoon. • Spraying of the indoor residential walls and ceiling is effective against mosquitos. • DDT is widely used as indoor residential spraying. • DDT should not be applied more than once or twice in a year on the walls. • Mosquito contact with DDT surface would generally save from lethal exposure outside the house. • Public must know that spray may require rearrangement of the furniture. Walls may become streaked with chemical treatment and residual odor from DDT. • The other alternative is malathion spray.

Fever in children

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , | | Comments Off on Fever in children

1. Do not ignore fever in children.

2. Fever with cough and cold means viral sore throat.

3. Fever with chills and rigor may be due to malaria.

4. Fever with severe headache and pain behind the eyes may be dengue.

5. If a child has fever with urinary symptoms, the child needs further investigations.

6. Do not ignore fever with jaundice.

7. Do not give aspirin to children for fever.

8. Immediately lower the temperature if the fever is more than 104°F.

9. If fever is associated with altered behavior, then immediately contact the doctor.

10. Tepid water sponging is better than sponging with cold and ice water.

11. In heat stroke, cold water sponging can lower the temperature if anti-fever medication is not working.

12. Do not ignore if body temperature is low.

13. If body temperature is less than 95°F, immediately warm the child using blankets and other measures.

14. Paracetamol is the safest medicine for children in fever.

Malaria

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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• Malaria is transmitted by the bite of a female anopheles mosquito.

• The mosquito bite occurs mainly between dusk and dawn.

• Malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, or via sharing of contaminated needles.

• Bed nets are good against malaria as the major malarial vectors bite during the night.

• The behavior of the mosquitoes may differ. Some may prefer to rest indoors and feed indoors in the night. Some may prefer to rest and feed outdoors earlier in the day.

• Preventive therapy of malaria can be instituted during pregnancy in high risk areas.

• The malarial mosquito feeds every third day compared to the dengue mosquito, which feeds three times in a day.

• Unlike the malarial mosquito, the dengue mosquito bites during the day.

• Malarial fever presents with chills, especially during afternoon.

• Spraying of the indoor residential walls and ceiling is effective against mosquitos.

• DDT is widely used as indoor residential spraying.

• DDT should not be applied more than once or twice in a year on the walls.

• Mosquito contact with DDT surface would generally save from lethal exposure outside the house.

• Public must know that spray may require rearrangement of the furniture. Walls may become streaked with chemical treatment and residual odor from DDT.

• The other alternative is malathion spray.

Malaria

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on Malaria

  • Malaria is transmitted by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito.
  • The malaria mosquito bites mainly between dusk and dawn. While, the dengue mosquito bites during the day.
  • Malaria can also transmit by blood transfusion by sharing of contaminated needles.
  • Bed nets are good against malaria since major malarial vectors bite during the night.
  • Mosquito’s behavior may differ. Some may prefer to rest indoors and feed indoors in the night. Some may prefer to rest and feed outdoors earlier in the day.
  • Preventive therapy of malaria can be instituted in pregnancy in high risk areas.
  • The malarial mosquito feeds every third day compared to dengue mosquito, which feeds three times a day.
  • Malarial fever presents with chills, especially during afternoon.
  • Spraying of the indoor residential walls and ceiling is effective against mosquitoes.
  • DDT is widely used as indoor residential spraying.
  • DDT should not be applied more than once or twice early in the walls.
  • Mosquito contact with DDT surface would generally save from lethal exposure outside the house.
  • Public must know that spray may require furniture rearrangement. Walls may become streaked with chemical treatment and residual odor from DDT.
  • The other alternative is malathion spray.

Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya and Filaria are diseases spread by mosquitoes and are totally preventable. Here are a few tips to prevent them.

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , , | | Comments Off on Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya and Filaria are diseases spread by mosquitoes and are totally preventable. Here are a few tips to prevent them.

  • Both malaria and dengue mosquitoes bite during day time.
  • It is the female mosquito which bites.
  • Dengue mosquito takes three meals in a day while malaria mosquito takes one meal in three days.
  • Malaria may infect only one person in the family but dengue will invariably infect multiple members in the family in the same day.
  • Malaria fever often presents with chills and rigors. If the fever presents together with joint and muscle pains, one should suspect Chikungunya.
  • Both dengue and malaria mosquitoes grow in fresh water collected in the house.
  • The filaria mosquito grows in dirty water.
  • There should be no collections of water inside the house for more than a week.
  • Mosquito cycle takes 7–12 days to complete. So, if any utensils or containers that store water are cleaned properly once in a week, there are no chances of mosquito breeding.
  • Mosquitoes can lay eggs in money plant pots or in water tanks on the terrace if they are not properly covered.
  • If the water pots for birds kept on terraces are not cleaned every week, then mosquitoes can lay eggs in them.
  • Some mosquitoes can lay eggs in broken tires, broken glasses or any container where water can stay for a week.
  • Using mosquito nets/repellents in the night may not prevent malaria and dengue because these mosquitoes bite during the day time.
  • Both malaria and dengue mosquitoes do not make a sound. Therefore, mosquitoes that do not produce a sound do not cause diseases.
  • Wearing full sleeves shirt and trousers can prevent mosquito bites.
  • Mosquito repellent can be helpful during the day.
  • If you suspect that you have a fever, which can be malaria or dengue, immediately report to the doctor.
  • There are no vaccines for malaria and dengue.

Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya and Filaria are diseases spread by mosquitoes and are totally preventable. Here are a few tips:

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Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , , , , | | Comments Off on Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya and Filaria are diseases spread by mosquitoes and are totally preventable. Here are a few tips:

  • Both malaria and dengue mosquitoes bite during day time.
  • It is the female mosquito which bites.
  • Dengue mosquito takes three meals in a day while malaria mosquito takes one meal in three days.
  • Malaria may infect only one person in the family but dengue will invariably infect multiple members in the family in the same day.
  • Malaria fever often presents with chills and rigors. If the fever presents together with joint and muscle pains, one should suspect Chikungunya.
  • Both dengue and malaria mosquitoes grow in fresh water collected in the house.
  • The filaria mosquito grows in dirty water.
  • There should be no collections of water inside the house for more than a week.
  • Mosquito cycle takes 7-12 days to complete. So, if any utensil or container that stores water is cleaned properly once in a week, there are no chances of mosquito breeding.
  • Mosquitoes can lay eggs in money plant pots or in water tanks on the terrace if they are not properly covered.
  • If the water pots for birds kept on terraces are not cleaned every week, then mosquitoes can lay eggs in them.
  • Some mosquitoes can lay eggs in broken tires, broken glasses or any container where water can stay for a week.
  • Using mosquito nets/repellents in the night may not prevent malaria and dengue because these mosquitoes bite during the day time.
  • Both malaria and dengue mosquitoes do not make a sound. Therefore, mosquitoes that do not produce a sound do not cause diseases.
  • Wearing full sleeves shirt and trousers can prevent mosquito bites.
  • Mosquito repellent can be helpful during the day.
  • If you suspect that you have a fever, which can be malaria or dengue, immediately report to the doctor.
  • There are no vaccines for malaria and dengue.

 

 

The dramatic change in weather during and post-monsoon results in a range of health concerns.

Here are the top five post monsoon illnesses which one can prevent:

1. Dengue fever

 Dengue fever is a viral infection that is carried by mosquitoes and causes fever, body aches, joint pain, and rash. It is spread by what’s known as the tiger mosquito (Aedes Aegypti), which has black and white stripes and typically bites in the early morning or at dawn. These mosquitoes are also known to spread the Chikungunya fever virus. Dengue is most common inIndia during the few months after the monsoon, but also occurs during the monsoon season.

Preventive measures: Unfortunately, there aren’t any drugs available to prevent the virus. As it’s transmitted via mosquitoes, one should wear a strong insect repellent containing DEET to prevent getting bitten. Avoid wearing perfume and aftershave, and dress in light-colored loose clothing.

2. Malaria

 Malaria is another mosquito-transmitted disease that is common during and after the monsoon, when mosquitoes have had a chance to breed in stagnant water. The more severe falciparum strain is the most active after the monsoon.

Preventive measures: Take an antimalarial drug such as mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil, or doxycycline. Also take measures to prevent against mosquito bites.

3. Viral fever

 Viral fever is quite common in our country during changes in weather. It’s characterized by fatigue, chills, body aches and fever. The illness is usually transmitted through the air by droplets from infected people, or by touching infected secretions. It lasts from 3 to 7 days, with the fever at its most severe in the first three days. Respiratory symptoms tend to develop later on, and can include cough and in severe cases pneumonia.

 Preventive measures: Unfortunately, viral fever is easily spread and difficult to prevent. Medications are available to treat the symptoms and control the side effects where necessary, but one should consult a doctor if you get viral fever.

 4. Heat-related illness

 Dehydration and heat exhaustion are big issues during the hot weather, particularly for children. Symptoms include absence of urination, lethargy, fatigue, and headaches. Skin rashes, caused by excessive perspiration, are also a concern.

Preventive measures: Drink lots of water (and the popular lemon water — nimbu paani) and take oral rehydration salts (ORS). Alternatively, add half a teaspoon of salt and 3 teaspoons of sugar into 1 liter of water. Avoid drinking cold soft drinks containing preservatives. Also be aware that air conditioners can encourage dehydration by drying out your system. Bathe at least twice a day to remove perspiration from the skin and keep the body cool. Apply talcum powder to rash areas.

5. Allergies and Hay Fever

 Many trees start pollinating from September to October, triggering seasonal allergies among people. Common symptoms include inflammation in the lining of the nose and eyes. Allergic bronchitis, which affects the lung area and may induce breathing problems, can also be a problem.

 Preventive measures: Allergy symptoms can be treated to a certain extent by taking anti-allergy and antihistamine drugs. Those who suffer from asthma should always carry their inhaler.

Differentiate Between Different Types Of Fever

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Different fevers can be differentiated clinically.

Following are few tips

  • If a patient comes with fever with chills and rigors, think of Malaria in north and filaria in Vidarbha region inIndia.
  • In malaria, chills are in the afternoon; in filarial, the chills occur in the evening.
  • Fever with joint pains on extension often is due to Chikungunya (flexion improves the pain)
  • Think of dengue if there is fever with itching, rash and periorbital pain.
  • In presence of fever with single chills think of pneumonia.
  • Fever with sore throat, no cough, no nasal discharge: Think of streptococcal sore throat, especially in the children.
  • Fever with red angry-looking throat: Think of streptococcal sore throat
  • Fever with red epiglottis: Think of Hemophilus infection
  • Fever with cough and or nasal discharge: Think of common flu
  • Fever with cough, nasal discharge, nausea and vomiting: Think of H1N1 flu
  • Fever with toxic look, persistent fever: Look for typhoid
  • Fever with no or low rise in pulse: Look for typhoid
  • Fever with urinary symptoms (burning, frequency): Rule out urinary infection.
  • Fever with high TLC (white cell count) and liver pain: Rule out liver abscess
  • Fever with watery diarrhea, with no blood or mucous: Rule out acute gastroenteritis
  • After the fever is over, jaundice appears: This is viral hepatitis
  • After the fever is over, one feels very weak: Rule our dengue hemorrhagic fever.

 

After the intense summer heat, the arrival of monsoon is a cause of much cheer, but it also brings along a whole lot diseases. Monsoon reduces the immunity of the body.

The most common diseases in the monsoon are malaria, dengue, Chikungunya, jaundice including gastrointestinal infections like typhoid and cholera. Viral infections like cold and cough also make their presence felt.

Chikungunya patients, classically, have joint pains that are relieved by flexing the limbs. Dengue, if not adequately managed, can be fatal in 1 to 4 percent of cases but chikungunya, though not fatal, can cause chronic debilitating joint pains that may last for years. Dengue management involves fluid resuscitation and not platelet resuscitation. Mortality can be reduced if enough fluids are given. The mortality period usually starts when the fever subsides. Inappropriate use of anti fever medicines can precipitate bleeding in dengue patients. Read more