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Dr K K Aggarwal

Hepatitis B is a more dangerous infection than HIV

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  • Viral hepatitis and HIV coinfection is a common problem and challenge to the treating clinician.
  • People with HIV who are coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at increased risk for serious, life-threatening health complications.
  • All people living with HIV should be tested for hepatitis B and C infections.
  • HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection can complicate the management of HIV infection.
  • Progression of liver disease is faster in individuals with HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection; also, they may not respond as well to treatment.
  • Hepatitis B is preventable; hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for high-risk people or those living with HIV who have tested negative for HBV.
  • Give hepatitis B vaccine to all unvaccinated persons after exposure to blood. If the blood is positive for HBV and the exposed person is unvaccinated, treatment with hepatitis B immune globulin is recommended.
  • HIV, HBV and HCV have similar routes of transmission. They spread by contact with infected body fluids such as blood, semen and vaginal fluid, or from a mother to her baby during pregnancy or delivery. Because of these shared routes of transmission, people at risk for HIV infection are also at risk for HBV or HCV infection. Of these, hepatitis B is more infectious.
  • Hepatitis B virus gets transmitted by percutaneous and mucosal exposures and human bites.
  • Hepatitis B can also be transmitted by fomites such as finger stick blood sugar check, multidose medication vials, jet gun injectors, and endoscopes. Hepatitis B virus can survive on counter tops for up to 7 daysand remain capable of causing infection.
  • Any scratch, cut and wound should be cleaned with soap and water and covered with a waterproof dressing or plaster. Expressing fluid by squeezing the wound will not reduce the risk of blood borne infection.
  • Blood spills from someone with hepatitis B should be cleaned up with appropriate infection control procedures, e.g. wearing gloves, and using an appropriate cleaning product for the surface, such as diluted bleach or detergent and warm water.
  • Transmission of hepatitis C virus can occur from infected fluid splashes to the conjunctiva. Hepatitis C virus can survive on environmental surfaces for up to 16 hours.

Even children can have acidity

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , | | Comments Off on Even children can have acidity

Children who have continuing recurrence of cough and croup could be suffering from stomach reflux problems.

Croup, or ‘Kali Khansi,’ as it is called in local parlance, is recognized by a loud cough that often sounds like the barking of a seal. It can cause rapid or difficult breathing, and sometimes wheezing. Croup is thought to be caused by a virus, but reflux acidity has been suggested as a possible trigger. In GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, stomach acid causes swelling and inflammation of the larynx, which narrows the airway. It can trigger more swelling with any kind of viral or respiratory infection. Identifying children with GERD could help treat and improve recurring croup. It is unusual for a child to have three or more bouts of croup over a short period of time. These children need to be evaluated. The same is true for adults also. Patients with non-responding asthma should be investigated for underlying acidity as the cause of acute asthma.