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Dr K K Aggarwal

Explaining cardiac interventions

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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For any traffic management, following are the options:

• Placing traffic signals can be equated to dos and don’ts of lifestyle management.

• Posting a traffic inspector on the crossing. This can be equated with clinical cardiologist.

• Diverting the traffic from main road to side roads. This can be equated to opening collaterals by drugs, exercise.

• Hiring an architect to make maps. This can be equated to an angiographer doing angiography.

• Looking for the possibility of widening the roads. This can be equated to balloon angioplasty.

• To prevent encroachment of widened roads to place railing around the widened roads can be equated to placement of metallic stent.

• To prevent mishandling of railing, safety grills are put. This can be equated to drug eluting stents.

• When the roads cannot be widened, flyovers are made, which can be equated to bypass surgery.

• Flyovers can be made by stopping the traffic. This can be equated to open bypass surgery.

• Flyovers can be made without disturbing the traffic, this can be equated to heart bypass surgery.

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Nail Hygiene

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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• Nails can harbor dirt and germs and contribute to the spread of many infections.

• Keep nails short.

• Trim nails often.

• Scrub the underside of nails with soap or water each time you wash your hands.

• Clean any nail grooming tools before use.

• Nail grooming tools should be sterilized before use in saloon.

• Avoid biting nails.

• Avoid chewing nails.

• Avoid cutting cuticles as they act as barriers to prevent infection.

• Never rip or bite a hang nail, instead clip it with a clear sterilized nail trimmer (a hang nail is small torn piece of skin next to finger nail or toe nail).

• Infections of the finger nails or toe nails are often characterized by swelling of the skin or thickening of the nail. In some cases these infections may be serious and need to be treated by a doctor.

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Women beware of heart disease

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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More women die of cardiovascular disease than from the next four causes of death combined, including all forms of cancer.

Over 80 percent of cardiac events in women could be prevented by modifying diet, exercise and abstinence from smoking.

Following may be the warning signals of heart attack

Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain in the center of the chest. It lasts more than a few minutes, or goes away and comes back.

Pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach.

Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfort.

Breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness.

As with men, women’s most common heart attack symptom is chest pain or discomfort. But women are somewhat more likely than men to experience some of the other common symptoms, particularly shortness of breath, nausea/vomiting and back or jaw pain.

In presence of any of the above one should not wait for more than five minutes and get to a hospital right away.

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Why is my nose bleeding?

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Nosebleed is a common problem, occurring in up to 60 percent of the general population and is often because of a respiratory illness or dry conditions. Nasal drying is common in the hot summer months because of the extreme temperature and dry air due to use of air conditioners.

Here are some typical reasons for nosebleeds:

• Nasal allergies

• Blowing your nose too hard or trying to remove something from inside the nose • A result of “popping” the ear

• Nasal exposure to chemicals

• Frequent sneezing or having an upper respiratory infection

• Use of nasal spray or a blood-thinning drugs, such as aspirin

• Inhaling air that is extremely dry or cold

• Having recent surgery on the nose or elsewhere on the face

• Breaking the nose or a similar injury

• Uncontrolled blood pressure

Bleeding can be controlled by direct pressure i.e. compression of the nostrils rasping the alae distally so all mucosal surfaces are opposed. Direct pressure should be applied continuously for at least 5 min and for up to 20 min. The patient should be encouraged not to check for active bleeding. Patients who are properly instructed may control their bleeding while the evaluation gets underway.

Other maneuvers include bending forward at the waist while sitting up (to avoid swallowing blood), placing a plug of cotton wool or gauze into the bleeding nostril (sometimes coated with antibiotic ointment), expectorating out blood that accumulates in the pharynx and a cold compress applied to the bridge of the nose.

These maneuvers also should be taught to high-risk patients for use at home. Many ENT specialists recommend initial treatment with two puffs of oxymetazoline to hasten hemostasis.


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Exercise impact on the knee

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Different exercises produce different impacts on the knee joints. The best and safest exercises causing minimum impact on the knee for patients post knee replacement or knee arthritis are walking, biking, hiking, riding an exercise bike, riding an elliptical trainer and walking on the treadmill. In sports one can play doubles tennis and not singles. One can also participate in downhill or cross–country skiing.

The maximum stress–producing exercises are jogging and golf swings.

Impact

• Biking generates the least force, producing impact of about 1.3 times the person’s body weight.

• Treadmill walking was next best, producing forces of 2.05 times the body weight.

• Walking on level ground generated forces of 2.6 times the body weight.

• A game of tennis produces forces of 3.1 to 3.8 times the body weight; serving produces the highest impact.

• Jogging produced forces of 4.3 times body weight.

• Golf swings produces forces of 4.5 times body weight on the forward knee and 3.2 times body weight in the opposite knee.

 

 

 

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Cough Hygiene

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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• When you cough or sneeze, you tend to expel out respiratory waste, which can be droplets (larger than 5 microns) or airborne droplets less than 5 microns; both have different implications.

• Droplets remain suspended in the air only for a limited period and exposure of less than 3 feet is usually required for human to human transmission of droplet–borne respiratory organisms. In flu, this can be up to 6 feet. The examples of droplet infections are patients with meningitis, influenza, rubella (German measles) etc.

• No precautions need to be taken by a person, who is at a distance of 6–10 feet away from the patient. But, if a person is sitting or working even at a distance of 3–6 feet, the non–coughing person should wear simple mask.

• In contrast, airborne droplet nuclei, which carry respiratory secretions smaller than 5 microns can remain suspended in the air for extended period and can cause infections to people who are standing even more than 10 feet away. The example of airborne droplet nuclei infections are TB, measles, chickenpox and SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome).

• Patients with these diseases need to be placed in an isolation room. And, all those people who are looking after these patients must use a safe N95 mask.

• In normal house with open windows, there is a constant exchange of air, which prevents spread of infections but in rooms with air conditioners (ACs) with no air exchange, infections can spread from one person to another.

• When sitting in an air conditioned atmosphere, the setting of the AC should be such that the same air is not circulated and fresh air is allowed to exchange. Split ACs, therefore, are more dangerous than the window ACs.

• In an office with split AC, if one employee is suffering from any of the droplet nuclei disease, he/she can transmit infection to others. Therefore, patients with confirmed TB, measles, chickenpox and SARS should not be allowed to work in offices with split ACs.

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Tips to relieve heartburn

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , | | Comments Off

• Avoid foods that trigger your symptoms.

• Eat small portions and don’t overeat; chew food slowly and completely.

• Avoid smoking, eating quickly, chewing gum, and drinking carbonated beverages as they lead to swallowing excess air.

• Reduce stress.

• Get enough rest.

• Don’t lie down within 2 hours of eating.

• Maintain a healthy body weight.

(Source: Harvard Healthbeat)

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Vitamin D Facts

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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• Calcium has an indispensable assistant in building bones: vitamin D.

• Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium.

• Increasing vitamin D can help prevent osteoporosis.

• A small amount of sun exposure can help the body manufacture its own vitamin D.

• Five to 30 minutes of sunlight between 10 am and 3 pm twice a week to your face, arms, legs, or back without sunscreen will enable you to make enough of the vitamin

• People with fair skin that burns easily should protect themselves from skin cancer by limiting sun exposure to 10 minutes or less.

• Food and sun exposure should suffice, but if not, get 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily from a supplement.

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