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Dr K K Aggarwal

Some tips on use of antibiotics from HCFI

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  1. Practice rational use of drugs antibiotics
  2. Use when needed and according to guidelines
  3. Avoid broad spectrum antibiotics without appropriate diagnosis
  4. Prevent infections with the use of vaccination and by improving basic hygiene including hand hygiene and infection control techniques and sanitation in health care settings as well as in the community
  5. Farmers and food industry must stop using antibiotics routinely to promote growth and prevent disease in healthy animals to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Some tips to prevent urinary infections from HCFI

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  1. Pass urine immediately after a sexual intercourse. Apart from this, keep a check on the kind of underwear you use.
  2. Maintain proper personal hygiene after urinating or defecating. Consult a doctor immediately in case of any recurrent symptoms.
  3. Drinking cranberry juice has been thought to help decrease frequent infections. This is particularly true for women. Cranberries are known to contain substances that can prevent infection-causing bacteria from sticking to the urinary tract walls.
  4. Make sure you are adequately hydrated and drink at least 7 to 8 glasses of water a day.
  5. Choose lubricated condoms that do not contain spermicide. Spermicide can cause irritation and allow the bacteria to grow.

The Science of Hygiene

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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All of us are taught about hygienic living and this subject should be included as a chapter in the curriculum of every school. There are many different kinds of hygiene.

Respiratory hygiene: To prevent cross infection, specifically, from flu and related respiratory illness. One should be at a distance of minimum 3 ft, from a person who is coughing, sneezing or singing. Most respiratory particles are more than 5 microns in size and do not travel a distance of more than 3 ft. This may be one reason why in the ancient times, sneezing was considered a bad omen and people were asked to stay away for few seconds from someone who sneezes in front of them. This respiratory hygiene, however, will not prevent transmission of tuberculosis whose bacteria are less than 5 microns which keeps circulating in the area.

Hand hygiene: This is the fundamental principle for any disease prevention and the catch phrase is “before and after”, which means – one should wash hands before and after eating food, touching any infected material, seeing a patient or after normal evacuation of stool in the morning.

Food hygiene: This basically means maintaining hygiene at home while cutting, serving and eating food. While cutting a vegetable, it involves clean hygienic surface, knife, hands, water, utensils etc. If that hygiene is not possible, follow the formula of boil it, heat it, peel it, cook it or forget it. That means, any food which has been boiled, heated or peeled is safe for eating. Peeling means removing the skin of a fruit such as banana or oranges.

Water hygiene: involves drinking safe water, safe drinking glass, proper washing of glass, not washing multiple glasses in the same utensil and proper picking of glasses. It is often seen that many caretakers pick up four glasses of water at a time with four fingers one in each glass.

Sexual hygiene: This involves washing local areas before and after sexual contact.

Body hygiene: This involves 16 upchars, as mentioned in mythology. Out of these 16 basic steps, some are related to body hygiene and they involve washing feet first and then hands followed by mouth and finally the body. Washing of the feet is the most important as they are the ones which carry infections into one’s house.

Cleaning of mouth is cleaning the teeth with one finger, gums with two fingers, tongue with three fingers and palate with thumb.

Abhishekam or the snana of the body involves multiple steps. Ancient steps have been washing the body with milk water (rose water etc.) followed by rubbing with curd (soap), honey (moisturizers), ghee (oil), sugar (the drying agent) and finally with milk water again. This facilitates natural bathing and not dependent on soap.

Nail hygiene: This is also one of the most important hygiene because they are responsible for causation of water and food disease. Therefore, this hygiene is very important for food handlers. It is important that they be give typhoid vaccines and de–worming tablets every three months

Servant hygiene: The most important hygiene to be observed at our homes is that of the servants or the help. They are often provided soap at the start of the month and they are supposed to continue using that soap for a month. If by any chance, they lose that soap in 2–3 weeks’ time, they are apprehensive in asking the owners for soap. As a result, they may wash their hands without soap for the next 2–3 weeks, which includes washing of hands in morning.

Wound Hygiene

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  1. Irrigation is the most important thing for reducing bacterial impact.
  2. Irrigation with warm normal saline or simple running tap water should be urgently done in every wound.
  3. Add dilute iodine or any aseptic solution if required.
  4. Irrigation can be low pressure or high pressure. At home low pressure injection is sufficient which can be done using any of the infant milk bottle.
  5. If there is a burn, irrigation should be done continuously till the burning disappears.
  6. In case there is a foreign body with irritation, continuous irrigation should be done till burning disappears.
  7. Do not forget to wash your hands with soap and water before cleaning the wound and wear medical gloves, if available.
  8. It is good idea to let the injured person clear his or her own wounds, if possible.
  9. Rinsing of the wounds should be done for at least 5–10 minutes.
  10. Cool water may feel better than warm water on the wound.
  11. If there is a mild bleeding, clean the wound first and then stop the bleeding.
  12. Moderate scrubbing can be done if the wound is very dirty.
  13. If there are foreign bodies or objects, remove them using a clear tweezers. Do not push the tweezers, deeply into the wound.
  14. Apply dressing and bandage to the wound as the need may be.

Hepatitis A, E and typhoid are the hygiene markers of a city

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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It is diseases such as jaundice with hepatitis A in children and E in adults, typhoid, cholera and gastroenteritis that reflect the hygiene status of a city and not the occurrence of dengue and malaria.

Food and water–borne diseases can be eradicated by the following public awareness formula: When in doubt follow the principle, “heat it, boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it”. This means that in an unhygienic environment, one can eat an orange or a banana but not a tomato or apple. Other steps are:

  1. Do not eat salad that has been left open for more than 2 hours even if it is washed properly.
  2. Do not take cooked food that has been left on the table for more than 2 hours.
  3. Vegetables grown under the ground or over the surface of the ground should be washed properly before eating them raw. They may be the biggest source of worm infection in the brain, a condition called neurocysticercosis.
  4. Boiled water is the safest water to drink.
  5. Ice made from unhygienic water can be the source of most water–borne diseases.

It is our duty to keep our home and city as clean as possible. We must regard our city as our extended home, a garden as our farmhouse and roads as are our personal walking tracks.

Cough Hygiene

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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When you cough or sneeze you tend to expel out respiratory waste which can be droplets larger than 5 micron or airborne droplet less than 5 micron both have different clinical implications. Droplets remain suspended in the air for a limited period only and exposure of less than 3 feet is usually required for human to human transmission of droplet borne respiratory organisms. In flu this can be up to 6 feet. The examples of droplet infections are meningitis influenza rubella German measles etc. No precaution needs to be taken by a person who is 6 10 feet away from the patient but if a person is sitting or working even 3 6 feet distance the non coughing person should wear a simple mask. Airborne droplet nuclei that carry respiratory secretion smaller than 5 micron can remain suspended in the air for extended period and can cause infections to people who are standing even more than 10 feet away. The example of airborne droplet nuclei infections are TB measles chickenpox and SARS. Patients with these diseases should be placed in an isolation room and all healthcare personnel who are looking after these patients must use a safe N95 mask. In normal house with windows opened there is a constant exchange of air which prevents spread of infections but in AC setups with no air exchange the infections can spread from one person to another. When sitting in an air conditioned atmosphere the setting of the AC should be such that the same air is not circulated and fresh air is allowed to exchange. Split ACs therefore are more dangerous than the window ACs. In an office with split AC if one employee is suffering from any of the droplet nuclei disease can transmit infection to others. Therefore patients with confirmed TV measles chickenpox and SARS should not be allowed to work in split AC atmosphere.

Hepatitis A, E and Typhoid are the hygiene markers of a city

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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It is diseases such as jaundice with hepatitis A in children and E in adults, typhoid, cholera and gastroenteritis that reflect the hygiene status of a city and not the occurrence of dengue and malaria.

Food and water–borne diseases can be eradicated by the following public awareness formula: When in doubt follow the principle, “heat it, boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it”. This means that in an unhygienic environment, one can eat an orange or a banana but not tomato or apple. Other steps are:

  • Do not eat salad that has been left open for more than 2 hours even if it is washed properly.
  • Do not eat cooked food that has been left on the table for more than two hours.
  • Vegetables grown under the ground or over the surface of the ground should be washed properly before eating them raw. They may be the biggest source of worm infection in the brain, a condition called neurocysticercosis.
  • Boiled water is the safest water to drink.
  • Ice made from unhygienic water can be the source of most water–borne diseases.
  • It is our duty to keep our home and city as clean as possible. We must regard our city as our extended home, a garden as our farmhouse and roads as are our personal walking tracks.

Most food and water–borne diseases are self–inflicted and can be managed by a simple step of washing the hands before and after using the toilet and before and after consuming any food.

The Science Of Hygiene

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on The Science Of Hygiene

Everybody is taught to learn about hygienic living and this should be a chapter in every school. There are many types of hygiene.

Respiratory hygiene to prevent cross infection, specifically, from flu and related respiratory illness. One should distance oneself from a person who is coughing, sneezing or singing by minimum 3ft. Most respiratory particles are more than 5 microns in weight and do not travel a distance of more than 3 ft. This may be one reason why in ancient era, sneezing was considered a bad omen and people were asked to stay away for few seconds from someone who sneezes in front of them. This respiratory hygiene, however, will not prevent transmission of tuberculosis whose bacteria are less than 5 microns which keeps circulating in the area.

Hand hygiene: is a fundamental principle for any disease prevention and the catch point is – “before and after”, which means – one should wash hands before and after eating food, touching any infected material, seeing a patient or after normal evacuation of stool in the morning.

Food hygiene: basically means maintaining hygiene at home while cutting, serving and eating food. While cutting a vegetable, it involves clean hygienic surface, knife, hands, water, utensils etc. If that hygiene is not possible, follow the formula of boil it, heat it, peal it, cook it or forget it. That means, any food which is boiled ,heated, peeled or heated is safe for eating. Peeling means like pealing a banana and oranges or anything which can be peeled by hands.

Water hygiene: involves drinking safe water, safe drinking glass, proper washing of glass, not washing multiple glasses in the same utensil and proper picking of glasses. It is often seen that many caretakers pick up four glasses of water at a time with four fingers one in each glass.

Sexual hygiene: involves washing local areas before and after sexual contact.

Body hygiene: involves 16 upchars, as mentioned in mythology. Out of these 16 basic steps, some are related to body hygiene and they involve washing feet first and then hands followed by mouth and finally the body. Washing of the feet is the most important as they are the ones which carry infections into one’s house.

Cleaning of mouth involves – cleaning of teeth with one finger, gums with two fingers, tongue with three fingers and palate with thumb.

Abhishekam or the snana of the body involves multiple steps. Ancient steps have been washing the body with milk water (rose water etc.) followed by rubbing with curd (soap), honey (moisturizers), ghee (oil), sugar (the drying agent) and finally with milk water again. It provides the natural type of bathing and not dependent on soap.

Servant Hygiene: The most important hygiene at our home is that of servant. Servants in our house are often given soap at the start of the month and they are supposed to continue using that soap for a month. If by any chance, they lose that soap in 2–3 weeks’ time, they fear in asking the owners for soap and they may end up washing their hands without soap for the next 2–3 weeks which includes washing of hands in morning.

Nails hygiene: is also one of the most important hygiene because they are responsible for causation of water and food disease. Therefore, for food handlers this hygiene is very important.

Vaccine hygiene: For food handlers it is very important to give typhoid vaccines and de–worming tablets every three months.

It is diseases such as jaundice with hepatitis A in children and E in adults, typhoid, cholera and gastroenteritis that reflect the hygiene status of a city and not the occurrence of dengue and malaria, said Padma Shri and Dr B C Roy National Awardee Dr KK Aggarwal President Heart Care Foundation of India and National Vice President-Elect IMA.

Dr. Aggarwal said that food and water–borne diseases can be eradicated by the following public awareness formula: When in doubt follow the principle, “heat it, boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it”. Explaining this, Dr, Aggarwal said that in an unhygienic environment, one can eat an orange or a banana but not tomato or apple. Other steps are:

  • Do not take salad that has been left open for more than 2 hours even if it is washed properly.
  • Do not take cooked food that has been left on the table for more than two hours.
  • Vegetables grown under the ground or over the surface of the ground should be washed properly before eating them raw. They may be the biggest source of worm infection in the brain, a condition called neurocysticercosis.
  • Boiled water is the safest water to drink.
  • Ice made from unhygienic water can be the source of most water–borne diseases.
  • It is our duty to keep our home and city as clean as possible. We must regard our city as our extended home, a garden as our farmhouse and roads as are our personal walking tracks.

Most food and water-borne diseases are self–inflicted and can be managed by a simple step of washing the hands before and after using the toilet and before and after consuming any food.