Shradhs are observed every year in Dakshinayana during Chaturmas in the Krishna Paksha of Ashwin month. Many rituals are performed to satisfy the unfulfilled desires of our three generations of our ancestors.

As per Vedas every individual has three debts to be paid off, firstly, the Devtas (Dev Rin), secondly of Guru and teachers (Rishi Rin) and, thirdly, of Ancestors (Pitra Rin).  Devtas here from scientific point of view will represent the people with Daivik qualities; teachers the ones who have taught us and Pitra will include three generations of ancestors. ‘Rin’ from scientific point of view would mean unfinished desires or tasks.

The rituals scientifically would mean detaching oneself from the guilt of unfinished task of our ancestors by detoxifying our mind.

Debt means desires of our ancestors which were not fulfilled during their lifetime. The responsibility to fulfill them automatically comes to the eldest son in the family and need to be fulfilled. If not, it reflects as a guilt disorder in the family and clinically may present with loss of wealth, loss of direction and courage and health. The resultant problems faced in mythology were called Pitra Dosh.

To remove that guilt and the resultant mental illness the ritual of performing Shradhs originated. Shradh has many components.

 1. Tarpan: or offering of water to the ancestors while reciting Mantras.

2.  Arpan (preparing food on the day of Shradh what the ancestors used to like)

3.  Brahmin bhoj (offering of Satvik food to Brahmins)

4.  Pind Daan (offering of black sesame, Kusha Grass, Jwar and boil or baked rice) observed by some.

5.  Observing a spiritual holiday or incubation period (taking a break from the routine worldly desires and going to a distant place like Gaya).

6.  Remembrance: Once the unfulfilled desires of the ancestors are over remembering our ancestors every year on the day of their death anniversary.

Scientifically Dakshinayana is the period of negative state of mind (nights are longer than days) and starts from 14th July and ends on 13th January. Chaturmas period (first four months) during Dakshinayana has the maximum negativity in the mind.  Chaturmas has Savan, Bhado, Ashwin and Kartik months.

The negative state of mind in Savan is related to anger and disturbed mind; in bhado to non fulfillment of desires and uncontrolled ego and in the month of Ashwin to guilt because of non fulfillment of desires of others (ancestors) especially during Amavasya.

In the rituals ‘Tarpan’ of Jal is offered to ancestors. ‘Jal’ in mythology means flow of thoughts and offering ‘Jal’ in mythology equates to confession and getting connected.  Tarpan is always done with an aim to purify the mind and wash off the guilt.

‘Tarpan’ is always done after the desires of our ancestors are fulfilled by the person performing the Shradh. ‘Arpan’ is the ritual named for that. Tarpan and Arpan on the day of Shradh means getting connected to our consciousness and informing that all the unfinished tasks are over so that we can get rid of the long persisting guilt trigger from our mind. Offering and making food which was liked by our ancestors on that day is just to remember and pay respect to them.

Confession is only possible in a Satwik state of mind which requires eating of Satwik food for a few days. The ritual of offering Satwik food to Brahmins during the Shradh means making only Satwik food on that day so that everyone in the family is forced to eat Satwik food during Shradhs.

Pind Daan denotes medicinal ways of detaching oneself from the guilt. All the four offerings (black sesame, Kusha grass, Jwar and Boiled or roasted rice) in Ayurveda are mentioned to detoxify the mind and making it Satwik by removing Rajas and Tamas.

If the guilt does not go by repeated Shradhs than one is required to go for a spiritual vacation during Shradh period so that he is away from the worldly desires for a few days before the Shradh and that is what going to Gaya means. This spiritual retreat works like an incubation period to the disturbed mind and gets rid off the disturbed mind and allows the undisturbed state of mind to confess and purify.

The Pitra ceremonies are usually performed either on Amavasya every month (period of most negativity in a month) or on the day death anniversary or the Hindu Tithi (day) of the death of the ancestors coinciding with the day during Shradh days. If the date of death is not known then the Shradh is observed on Amavasya.

Some people perform Shradh for full 15 days and others perform it from the first day till the day of their ancestor Shradh.

It is said that once a Shradh is successfully performed or Gaya Shradh is performed one may not need to go with Shradh rituals thereafter. As once the guilt is over there is no need for further detoxification of the mind. After that the only ritual need to be performed is ‘remembrance” which is usually performed on the death anniversary of the diseased ancestor usually by doing some charity on their names. .

One is not supposed to do good things during Shradh as during this period, the mind is in a process of detoxification.