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Dr K K Aggarwal

Types of smokers

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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  • Light: < 10 cigarettes per day
  • Heavy: > 25 cigarettes a day
  • Chippers: Very light smokers (< 5 cigarettes a day) who regularly use tobacco without developing dependence
  • Light and intermittent smokers: 1-39 cigarettes per week, or 10 cigarettes per day on average or 1-4 grams of tobacco per day and have never smoked daily
  • Low-level smokers: < 20 cigarettes per day and < 1 pack per week
  • Low-rate smokers: < 5 cigarettes per day and never >10 cigarettes per day
  • Non-daily smokers: < 7 days per week; may smoke < 3 packs per week
  • Occasional smokers: < 5 cigarettes per day and < 3 times per week, usually dependent on circumstances such as partying or drinking or after meals
  • Social smokers: < 5 cigarettes per day and < 7 days per week over last two years; have never exceeded that limit.

Managing Diabetes

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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• People with prediabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and paralysis.

• More than 25% people have prediabetes (blood sugar level more than 90 but below 126 mg/dL) but only 4% know it needs attention.

• Diabetes is not just about controlling blood sugar. Controlling BP (<120/80) and LDL bad cholesterol (<70) is equally important.

• Smokers face 44% increased risk of diabetes when compared to nonsmokers (Swiss researchers JAMA)

• Advancing age, diabetes, high BP, obesity, smoking, drugs, heart diseases, alcohol, cycling for > 3 hours/week can cause erectile dysfunction.

• Each 1 mg increase in serum uric acid increases the risk of developing diabetes by 18%.

• Keep your fasting sugar, lower BP, bad cholesterol, abdominal girth all below 80.

• Recent studies have shown that people at risk of type 2 diabetes can prevent onset of diseases by losing 5 to 7% body weight.

• Patients with diabetes should drive only if their blood sugar is under control and there is no evidence of end organ disqualifying disease.

• Significant snoring with episodes of cessation of respiration during night can lead to diabetes.

• Treating depression may help people with diabetes get their blood sugar under control.

• Sudden cardiac death is preventable – keep your diabetes under control.

• If BP and diabetes are kept under control, 75% dialysis and transplants can be prevented.

• One in five patients with diabetes have abnormal Treadmill Stress Test

• Patients with metabolic syndrome are 5 times more likely to develop diabetes (National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute).

• Diabetic patients have similar risk as non–diabetics with one heart attack.

• Fifty percent of diabetic patients may have associated high blood pressure.

• Uncontrolled diabetes can cause heart attack.

• Hypertension and diabetes together raise the chances of heart attack manifold.

• Diabetics can have heart attack without the classical symptom of pain.

• Diabetes can remain silent for over five years.

• Uncontrolled diabetes can cause impotence.

• Uncontrolled diabetes can cause blindness.

• Uncontrolled diabetes can cause paralysis.