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Dr K K Aggarwal

Hepatitis A, E and typhoid are the hygiene markers of a city

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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It is diseases such as jaundice with hepatitis A in children and E in adults, typhoid, cholera and gastroenteritis that reflect the hygiene status of a city and not the occurrence of dengue and malaria.Food and water–borne diseases can be eradicated by the following public awareness formula: When in doubt follow the principle, “heat it, boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it”. This means that in an unhygienic environment, one can eat an orange or a banana but not a tomato or apple. Other steps are:

  1. Do not eat salad that has been left open for more than 2 hours even if it is washed properly.
  2. Do not take cooked food that has been left on the table for more than 2 hours.
  3. Vegetables grown under the ground or over the surface of the ground should be washed properly before eating them raw. They may be the biggest source of worm infection in the brain, a condition called neurocysticercosis.
  4. Boiled water is the safest water to drink.
  5. Ice made from unhygienic water can be the source of most water–borne diseases.

It is our duty to keep our home and city as clean as possible. We must regard our city as our extended home, a garden as our farmhouse and roads as are our personal walking tracks.

Typhoid fever

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Typhoid fever is caused by a bacteria Salmonella typhi and is transmitted through the ingestion of food or drink contaminated by the feces or urine of infected people.

Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions. Though the cases occur all through the year, the number is higher during the summer and rainy seasons.

Symptoms usually develop 1 to 3 weeks after exposure, and may be mild or severe. They include high fever, malaise, headache, constipation or diarrhea and enlarged spleen and liver. A healthy carrier state may follow acute illness.

Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics. However, resistance to common antimicrobials is widespread. Healthy carriers should be excluded from handling food.

Sanitation and hygiene are the critical measures that can be taken to prevent typhoid.

  1. Typhoid does not affect animals and therefore transmission occurs only from human to human.
  2. Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces or urine are able to come into contact with food or drinking water.
  3. Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to preventing typhoid.
  4. Typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal.
  5. Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case-fatality rate to approximately 1%.
  6. When untreated, typhoid fever may persist for three weeks to a month.
  7. Resistance to common antibiotics is now common.
  8. Typhoid that is resistant to common antibiotics is known as multidrug-resistant typhoid (MDR typhoid).
  9. Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
  10. Typhoid vaccine taken every three years is the best preventive approach.

Hepatitis A, E and typhoid are the hygiene markers of a city

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , , , | | Comments Off on Hepatitis A, E and typhoid are the hygiene markers of a city

It is diseases such as jaundice with hepatitis A in children and E in adults, typhoid, cholera and gastroenteritis that reflect the hygiene status of a city and not the occurrence of dengue and malaria.

Food and water–borne diseases can be eradicated by the following public awareness formula: When in doubt follow the principle, “heat it, boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it”. This means that in an unhygienic environment, one can eat an orange or a banana but not a tomato or apple. Other steps are:

  1. Do not eat salad that has been left open for more than 2 hours even if it is washed properly.
  2. Do not take cooked food that has been left on the table for more than 2 hours.
  3. Vegetables grown under the ground or over the surface of the ground should be washed properly before eating them raw. They may be the biggest source of worm infection in the brain, a condition called neurocysticercosis.
  4. Boiled water is the safest water to drink.
  5. Ice made from unhygienic water can be the source of most water–borne diseases.

It is our duty to keep our home and city as clean as possible. We must regard our city as our extended home, a garden as our farmhouse and roads as are our personal walking tracks.

Poor hygiene habits may lead to typhoid

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , , , , , | | Comments Off on Poor hygiene habits may lead to typhoid

Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called Salmonella typhi, which is transmitted via ingestion of food or drink that has been contaminated by the feces or urine of infected people. Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions.

Though the cases occur round the year, more cases are seen during the summer and rainy seasons.

Symptoms usually develop 1–3 weeks after exposure, and may be mild or severe. They include high fever, malaise, headache, constipation or diarrhea and enlarged spleen and liver. A healthy carrier state may follow acute illness.

It can be treated with antibiotics. However, resistance to common antimicrobials is widespread. Healthy carriers should be excluded from handling food.

Sanitation and hygiene are the critical measures that can be taken to prevent typhoid.

Few salient facts about Typhoid fever

  1. Typhoid does not affect animals and therefore transmission is only from human to human.
  2. Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces or urine are able to come into contact with food or drinking water.
  3. Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to preventing typhoid.
  4. Typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal.
  5. Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case–fatality rate to approximately 1%.
  6. When untreated, typhoid fever persists for 3 weeks to a month.
  7. Resistance to common antibiotics is now common.
  8. Typhoid that is resistant to common antibiotics is known as multidrug–resistant (MDR)-typhoid.
  9. Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
  10. Typhoid vaccine taken every three years is the best preventive approach.

Poor hygiene habits may lead to typhoid

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , , , , , | | Comments Off on Poor hygiene habits may lead to typhoid

Typhoid fever is caused by a bacteria Salmonella typhi and is transmitted through the ingestion of food or drink contaminated by the feces or urine of infected people. Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions. Though the cases occur all through the year, the number is higher during the summer and rainy seasons. Symptoms usually develop 1 to 3 weeks after exposure, and may be mild or severe. They include high fever, malaise, headache, constipation or diarrhea and enlarged spleen and liver. A healthy carrier state may follow acute illness. Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics. However, resistance to common antimicrobials is widespread. Healthy carriers should be excluded from handling food. Sanitation and hygiene are the critical measures that can be taken to prevent typhoid.

  1. Typhoid does not affect animals and therefore transmission occurs only from human to human.
  2. Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces or urine are able to come into contact with food or drinking water.
  3. Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to preventing typhoid.
  4. Typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal.
  5. Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case–fatality rate to approximately 1%.
  6. When untreated, typhoid fever may persist for 3 weeks to a month.
  7. Resistance to common antibiotics is now common.
  8. Typhoid that is resistant to common antibiotics is known as multidrug-resistant typhoid (MDR typhoid).
  9. Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
  10. Azithromycin is a new drug for drug–resistant typhoid.
  11. Typhoid vaccine taken every three years is the best preventive approach.

Prevention of water-borne diseases during the monsoon season

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Rains bring much-welcome relief from the scorching summer, but they also increase susceptibility to diseases that are common during the season. The incidence of water-borne diseases including diarrhea, typhoid, and cholera rise during the rainy reason. These diseases are 100% preventable, and a threat to life can be avoided with timely diagnosis and treatment of the diseases. The body’s intestinal and digestive system becomes weak during the rainy season, which makes a person highly susceptible to all kinds of infections. People should take necessary precautions. They must avoid drinking water that is not properly boiled and stored and avoid consuming food that is exposed to the surroundings for quite a long time, for instance, street food, pre-cut fruits, and vegetables. A person’s diet during the monsoon season should consist of light and non-spicy food. Greasy, fried and fatty foods have thermal effect on our body and make us feel sluggish and so should be avoided. Contamination of water and unhygienic conditions are very often the cause of many monsoon ailments. Skin conditions, asthma, and arthritis also get aggravated because of excess humidity. Here are a few tips to prevent water-borne diseases this monsoon: • Drink only filtered/boiled water • Store water in a clean container • Water jars/containers should be washed daily. • Always wash hands before and after preparing food or eating. Likewise, children should be educated about the importance of washing their hands effectively and regularly • It is mandatory to wash one’s hands with soaps or use hand sanitizers after using a washroom, changing a child’s diaper, or after visiting unclean and infection prone areas such as public washrooms, hospitals • Consume warm and home cooked foods and avoiding consuming street food • Wash food thoroughly before cooking. • Always keep foods/beverages covered • Make sure that the pipes and tanks that supply water to your house are properly maintained and clean. • Travelers should only drink bottled water and avoid uncooked food. • People suffering from water-borne diseases should not go to work until fully recovered to avoid spreading the infection • Avoid using ice made from tap water. • Freezing does not kill the organisms that cause diarrhea. Ice in drinks is not safe unless it has been made from adequately boiled or filtered water • Alcohol does not sterilize water or the ice. Mixed drinks may still be contaminated. • Hot tea and coffee are the best alternates to boiled water

Water Hygiene

By Dr K K Aggarwal
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Safe water is an essential commodity for prevention of most water and food-borne diseases like diarrhea, typhoid and jaundice. These diseases are 100% preventable. All of them can be lethal if not prevented, diagnosed or treated in time. Transmission of parasitic infections can also occur with contaminated water. Here are a few tips:

• Travelers should avoid consuming tap water.

• Avoid ice made from tap water.

• Avoid any food rinsed in tap water.

• Chlorination kills most bacterial and viral pathogens.

• Chlorination does not kill giardia or amoeba cysts.

• Chlorination does not kill Cryptosporidium.

• Boiled/Treated/Bottled water is safe.

• Carbonated drinks, wine and drinks made with boiled water are safe.

• Freezing does not kill organisms that cause diarrhea. Ice in drinks is not safe unless it has been made from adequately boiled or filtered water.

• Alcohol does not sterilize water or the ice. Mixed drinks may still be contaminated.

• Hot tea and coffee are the best alternates to boiled water. • Bottled drinks should be requested without ice and should be drunk from the bottle with a straw rather than with a glass.

• Boiling water for 3 minutes followed by cooling to room temperature will kill bacterial parasites.

• Adding two drops of 5% sodium hydrochloride (bleach) to quarter of water (1 liter) will kill most bacteria in 30 minutes.

Poor hygiene habits may lead to typhoid

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , | | Comments Off on Poor hygiene habits may lead to typhoid

Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called Salmonella typhi, which is transmitted via ingestion of food or drink that has been contaminated by the feces or urine of infected people. Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions.

Though the cases occur round the year, more cases are seen during the summer and rainy seasons.

Symptoms usually develop 1–3 weeks after exposure, and may be mild or severe. They include high fever, malaise, headache, constipation or diarrhea and enlarged spleen and liver. A healthy carrier state may follow acute illness.

It can be treated with antibiotics. However, resistance to common antimicrobials is widespread. Healthy carriers should be excluded from handling food.

Sanitation and hygiene are the critical measures that can be taken to prevent typhoid.

Few salient facts about Typhoid fever

• Typhoid does not affect animals and therefore transmission is only from human to human.

• Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces or urine are able to come into contact with food or drinking water.

• Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to preventing typhoid.

• Typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal.

• Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case–fatality rate to approximately 1%.

• When untreated, typhoid fever persists for 3 weeks to a month.

• Resistance to common antibiotics is now common.

• Typhoid that is resistant to common antibiotics is known as multidrug–resistant (MDR)-typhoid.

• Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.




Poor hygiene habits may lead to typhoid

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , | | Comments Off on Poor hygiene habits may lead to typhoid

Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called Salmonella typhi, which is transmitted via ingestion of food or drink that has been contaminated by the feces or urine of infected people. Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions. Though the cases occur round the year, more cases are seen during the summer and rainy seasons. Symptoms usually develop 1–3 weeks after exposure, and may be mild or severe. They include high fever, malaise, headache, constipation or diarrhea and enlarged spleen and liver. A healthy carrier state may follow acute illness. It can be treated with antibiotics. However, resistance to common antimicrobials is widespread. Healthy carriers should be excluded from handling food. Sanitation and hygiene are the critical measures that can be taken to prevent typhoid. Few salient facts about Typhoid fever

• Typhoid does not affect animals and therefore transmission is only from human to human.

• Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces or urine are able to come into contact with food or drinking water.

• Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to preventing typhoid.

• Typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal.

• Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case–fatality rate to approximately 1%.

• When untreated, typhoid fever persists for 3 weeks to a month.

• Resistance to common antibiotics is now common.

• Typhoid that is resistant to common antibiotics is known as multidrug–resistant (MDR)-typhoid.

• Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Typhoid vaccine taken every three years is the best preventive approach

Hepatitis A, E and Typhoid are the hygiene markers of a city

By Dr K K Aggarwal
Filed Under Wellness | Tagged With: , , , , | | Comments Off on Hepatitis A, E and Typhoid are the hygiene markers of a city

It is diseases such as jaundice with hepatitis A in children and E in adults, typhoid, cholera and gastroenteritis that reflect the hygiene status of a city and not the occurrence of dengue and malaria.

Food and water–borne diseases can be eradicated by the following public awareness formula: When in doubt follow the principle, “heat it, boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it”. This means that in an unhygienic environment, one can eat an orange or a banana but not tomato or apple. Other steps are:

  • Do not eat salad that has been left open for more than 2 hours even if it is washed properly.
  • Do not eat cooked food that has been left on the table for more than two hours.
  • Vegetables grown under the ground or over the surface of the ground should be washed properly before eating them raw. They may be the biggest source of worm infection in the brain, a condition called neurocysticercosis.
  • Boiled water is the safest water to drink.
  • Ice made from unhygienic water can be the source of most water–borne diseases.
  • It is our duty to keep our home and city as clean as possible. We must regard our city as our extended home, a garden as our farmhouse and roads as are our personal walking tracks.

Most food and water–borne diseases are self–inflicted and can be managed by a simple step of washing the hands before and after using the toilet and before and after consuming any food.

It is diseases such as jaundice with hepatitis A in children and E in adults, typhoid, cholera and gastroenteritis that reflect the hygiene status of a city and not the occurrence of dengue and malaria, said Padma Shri and Dr B C Roy National Awardee Dr KK Aggarwal President Heart Care Foundation of India and National Vice President-Elect IMA.

Dr. Aggarwal said that food and water–borne diseases can be eradicated by the following public awareness formula: When in doubt follow the principle, “heat it, boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it”. Explaining this, Dr, Aggarwal said that in an unhygienic environment, one can eat an orange or a banana but not tomato or apple. Other steps are:

  • Do not take salad that has been left open for more than 2 hours even if it is washed properly.
  • Do not take cooked food that has been left on the table for more than two hours.
  • Vegetables grown under the ground or over the surface of the ground should be washed properly before eating them raw. They may be the biggest source of worm infection in the brain, a condition called neurocysticercosis.
  • Boiled water is the safest water to drink.
  • Ice made from unhygienic water can be the source of most water–borne diseases.
  • It is our duty to keep our home and city as clean as possible. We must regard our city as our extended home, a garden as our farmhouse and roads as are our personal walking tracks.

Most food and water-borne diseases are self–inflicted and can be managed by a simple step of washing the hands before and after using the toilet and before and after consuming any food.

Even typhoid can have chills and rigors

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Changing trends have been reported in typhoid fever since last decade. Continuous and intermittent fever with rigors and chills, headache, body aches, abdominal pain, enlarged spleen, enlarged liver, high pulse rate, and deranged liver functions are more commonly observed in typhoid fever reports Dr NS Neki, Assistant Professor Dept. of Medicine Govt. Medical College Amritsar, Punjab in January issue of Indian Journal of Clinical Practice.

In the study of 100 patients 48, 30, 14 and 8 were in the age group of 20-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years, respectively. In all the patients, fever (100-104°F) was the major presenting symptom. Duration of fever was one week in 32%, 1-2 weeks in 40%, 2-3 weeks in 20%, 3-4 weeks in 7% and >4 weeks in 1% patients. 65 patients presented with continuous fever and 32% with intermittent fever and 3% with remittent fever.

Sixty percent patients presented with rigors and chills and 40% without rigors and chills. Headache was reported in 80%, body ache in 60%, abdominal pain in 13%, cough in 10%, nausea in 4%, constipation in 2% and vomiting is 2% cases.

Clinical findings were enlarged spleen in 70%; high pulse rate in 65%; enlarged liver in 23%, coated tongue 12%; relative slow pulse rate in 3% and irritation of the brain layers in 3% with stupor in 1%.

Laboratory findings were anemia with Hb 6-11 g/dl in 25%; severe anemia with Hb <6 g/dl in 16%; neutropenia or low white cells in 9%; lymphopenia in 4%; lymphocytosis in 2%; low platelet count in 4 %; raised liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT in 42%; raised alkaline phosphatase in 7% and raised serum bilirubin in 5% cases.

Presence of fever with child and rigors does not always mean malaria or urinary tract infection.

If the fever is continuous one should look for typhoid. Raised SGOT and SGPT levels can be present in most viral fevers especially in the dengue season, said Padma Shri and Dr B C Roy National Awardee Dr KK Aggarwal, Editor in Chief IJCP.

Workshop for Teachers on Proper Hygiene in schools

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While conducting a workshop on health and hygiene organized by Heart Care Foundation of India and DAV School, Kailash Hills, Padma Shri & Dr. B.C. Roy National Awardee, Dr. KK Aggarwal, President, Heart Care Foundation of India, said that school education must focus on health and hygiene. This will take care of the burden of communicable diseases and provide healthy and correct lifestyle and prevent most non-communicable diseases.

He said that to start with, children should clean their teeth properly as chronic poor oral health and tooth loss is associated with modest increases in future heart blockages and paralysis. This effect persists even after adjustment for known cardiovascular risk factors.

Keeping the environment clean can prevent a large number of communicable diseases. Environment hygiene includes air hygiene, water hygiene and food hygiene. Most food-borne diseases are direct food or water-borne illnesses. Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium, Salmonella typhi, and is transmitted through the ingestion of food or drink contaminated by the feces or urine of infected people. Houseflies or other flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions. Though the cases occur round the year, typhoid occurs more often during summer and rainy seasons.

Do not eat fruits and vegetables that are cut and sold open as they can cause diseases such as typhoid, diarrhea, cholera and jaundice. Cut open fruits and vegetables, especially watermelon, sold on the streets and sugarcane juice attract flies and other infective organisms. Any food stored at room temperature for over two hours gets spoiled and may grow organisms. Cut open fruits on the road often remain in this state for hours together. In summer, precautions should also be taken while eating cut salad and uncovered food in the tiffin. The best fruits to eat in such situations are bananas and oranges.

Healthcare-associated infections are also becoming common. Therefore, one should avoid visiting a hospital for a formality.

A heart attack may occur at the age of 40 but the process of heart artery blockages starts in school age and early college life. To prevent the rising burden of obesity, diabetes, heart diseases, prevention must begin in school age.

Teachers from over 50 schools participated in the event. The participants included teachers, vice-principals and principals of various schools. Speaking on the occasion, Ms Era Khanna, Principal of DAV,KailashHillsSchool said that the teachers who are trained in this workshop will work like trainers for other teacher and school children. She said that every school must have a teacher who is trained to educate children on health and hygiene.

The subjects covered in the workshop were food hygiene, hand hygiene, water hygiene, respiratory hygiene and sexual parts hygiene.