1.     Cold application with ice packs, malleable chemical gel packs, and vapocoolant sprays may reduce muscle spasm, inflammation, and edema [1-3].

2.     It causes initial vasoconstriction, followed by vasodilation.

3.     Various superficial and deep heating methods are applied to control pain and are popular among cancer pain patients [1,4].

4.     Heat is analgesic in part by increasing blood flow and decreasing joint stiffness. It also may induce a state of mental relaxation [1].

5.     Superficial heating with hot packs, heating pads, or baths improves cutaneous blood flow and relaxes muscles and ligaments to a depth of 0.5 cm.

  1. Cancer Pract 1993; 1:137.
  2. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh 1994. p.1237.
  3. J Pain Symptom Manage 1994; 9:56.
  4.  Oncol Nurs Forum 1986; 13:56.